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In Part II of this series, Antonio Pinto, senior advisor, and Celso Branco, reservoir engineer, of Petrobras discuss advances in deep offshore drilling related to the enormous Santos pre-salt basin fields of Brazil. Exploiting deepwater resources in a cost-effective manner presents a number of challenges for the industry, In the deepwater Brazilian presalt, research and development may provide solutions. Technology has allowed industry to develop in ever deeper water to successfully add to energy supplies, despite the high capital requirements. Petrobras has had great success in overcoming enormous technological challenges in deep water during the last decade, but challenges remain. Luke Eaton of ConocoPhillips, Darryl Herrington of LLOG Exploration, and John Thorogood, drilling global consultant provide their perspectives on deepwater technologies.