Water Management

Journal of Petroleum Technology 

The demands for fresh water used in hydraulic-fracturing operations are placing constraints on water resources in some regions of the United States. Because of the high volumes of fresh water needed for hydraulic fracturing, the competing demand driven by industrial, municipal, and agricultural users has decreased the availability of fresh water and increased associated costs. Along with higher acquisition costs for fresh water, produced-water-disposal costs also have increased. To overcome these challenges, operators are using alternative methods of water management, including recycling and reusing produced water, to help reduce the total amount of fresh water required for their fracturing operations and, at the same time, reduce the amount of produced water that must be transported, treated, and disposed of. If the produced water is not recycled, the water is pumped into disposal wells.

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