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SPE.org 

Saudi Aramco studied such algorithms to produce images simulating the flow inside a pipe’s cross section, possibly reducing the need for separator-based multiphase flowmeters. A former technical manager with Petrobras discusses the development of the company’s flow assurance philosophies and strategies. Looped lines are used to reduce pressure drop and increase flow capacity, but information on the flow behavior or predictive methods are not available for these systems. Bypass pigging has advantages over conventional approaches. Its application to multi-phase flow with high wax content crude is discussed.