Facility piping systems need a lot of resources to assure their integrity and avoid the failures that may lead to catastrophic events such as safety-related incidents that could cause injury to personnel or interrupted operations that could lead to financial losses. Juan Carlos Ruiz-Rico, a senior engineer at DNV GL, discussed this combined methodology at the API’s Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit in Galveston, Texas. With piping, you have different materials, thicknesses, and sizes. You have systems with soil-to-air interfaces. You could have electrical interference due to power lines located near your facility.