Operators in the Permian Basin are looking for new ways to handle the rising volumes of produced water coming out of the region without using saltwater disposal wells. One solution, treatment for discharge, could provide an efficient alternative. Though a best practice for sustainable hydraulic fracturing operations, using nonpotable water creates an environment in which microorganisms thrive. If left unchecked, bacteria can affect the environment and the economic viability of the hydraulic fracturing operation. Market dynamics and costs drive the search for solutions.