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SPE.org 

In the complete paper, three stages of review have been combined to find out the applicability of the most-feasible improved-oil-recovery (IOR) methods in North American unconventional reservoirs. The US Energy Information Agency reports that the country is seeing petroleum exports rise across the board and notes serveral drivers for this trend. This paper describes functional water-treatment steps that target the most common removal of suspended solids and oil or condensate from Produced-water (PW) and flowback-water (FW) for recycling or disposal operations.