The E&P industry faces numerous challenges as it addresses growing energy demand, the need for sustainable operations, declining production from older reservoirs, and new resources in harder to reach and harsher environments. The SPE Research & Development Committee (now Research Development Technical Section) identified five grand challenges for the industry and is developing white papers for each one that describe the challenge, the current state of R&D, and areas for further research. Higher Resolution Subsurface Imaging (PDF) It is hard to read road signs if you have poor eyesight, which is why driver's licenses are issued with restrictions requiring that corrective lenses must be worn. Likewise, it is hard to find and exploit subsurface resources if you can't clearly see your targets or monitor the movement of fluids in the reservoir. Challenges in Reusing Produced Water Produced water is an inextricable part of the hydrocarbon recovery processes, yet it is by far the largest volume waste stream associated with hydrocarbon recovery.