JPT Sand Management and Sand Control 

More than half of all existing wells are estimated to require sand control or sand management throughout their lifetime, including unconsolidated sandstone in conventional reservoirs or flowback in unconventional reservoirs. The majority of recent major hydrocarbon discoveries, from Africa (Mozambique, Angola, and Tanzania), transcontinental countries (Egypt), North America (US and Canada), to Far East Asia (Malaysia), are offshore with high-permeability soft formation sands. Approximately half of them are gas-bearing reservoirs. High-flow-rate gas wells are particularly susceptible to sand production. High-velocity or turbulent fluid flow generates large drag forces, dislodging unconsolidated sand particles.