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Petroleum Engineering educational programs produce graduates Petroleum Engineering educational programs produce graduates primarily for the upstream sector of the petroleum industry. This primarily for the upstream sector of the petroleum industry. This paper will present a summary of both the undergraduate and paper will present a summary of both the undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering programs in the United States.
The undergraduate portion of the paper will address the curriculum, accreditation, enrollments, student recruitment, faculty, jobs, starting salaries, and a historical perspective.
The graduate section will address both master and doctoral level programs including the number and size of programs, curriculum, programs including the number and size of programs, curriculum, admission requirements, program administration, jobs, salaries, and a historical perspective.
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING EDUCATION HISTORY PETROLEUM ENGINEERING EDUCATION HISTORY Even though John Franklin Carl is often called the "father of petroleum engineering", Israel C. White in the late 1880's is petroleum engineering", Israel C. White in the late 1880's is recognized by some as the first practicing petroleum engineer in the Pennsylvania and West Virginia oil fields. Professional petroleum geologists were employed as early as 1897, in petroleum geologists were employed as early as 1897, in California and later in the Gulf Coast of Texas, Mexico and Oklahoma, and recognized the need for scientifically trained personnel in petroleum production. personnel in petroleum production. In the early 1900's, with the rapid growth of the petroleum industry and the encouragement of the scientifically trained individuals engaged in petroleum production, programs of study in petroleum technology were organized by the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers and the U.S. Geological Survey and later the U. S. Bureau of Mines.
Formal studies in petroleum technology were offered by the University of Pittsburgh as early, as 1910 and the first petroleum engineering degrees were conferred in 1915 from this institution.
As exploration and production of petroleum expanded throughout the U.S., petroleum engineering departments were organized. Eight universities initiated petroleum engineering programs during the decade 1910-1920; 12 in 1920-1930; and 10 during 1930-1960.
Initially, petroleum engineering programs consisted of liberal arts, basic science and mathematics courses supplemented by applied geological courses and petroleum equipment and production courses. Then engineering science courses of statics, dynamics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics were integrated into the program. Still later in the 1930's emphasis in specialized program. Still later in the 1930's emphasis in specialized petroleum courses shifted from the rock matrix to the pore space, petroleum courses shifted from the rock matrix to the pore space, pore fluid system and the productive mechanism pore fluid system and the productive mechanism During the period 1935-1945, phase behavior of reservoir fluids research coupled with the fundamental characteristics of fluid flow research provided the foundation for petroleum reservoir engineering.
Graduate studies in petroleum engineering developed as early petroleum field discoveries began to be depleted. Hence, it was petroleum field discoveries began to be depleted. Hence, it was only natural that such programs were initiated in Pennsylvania, followed by California, then the mid-continent area and finally by the Gulf Coast area. By 1958 the northeastern petroleum universities, primarily the University of Pittsburgh and Penn State University had granted 206 graduate degrees, the California universities 149, the mid-continent 207 and the Gulf Coast 161.
Since 1945 modern petroleum engineering programs have incorporated the evolution of highly sophisticated technology in drilling, down hole logging, formation evaluation, transient well testing and production operations, imaging, artificial intelligence, the use of reservoir simulation and high speed computers, etc. in their curriculum courses.
UNDERGRADUATE PETROLEUM ENGINEERING PROGRAMS PROGRAMS Unique Scope of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduate Education
Petroleum engineering students are unequally trained primarily for Petroleum engineering students are unequally trained primarily for the upstream sector of the petroleum industry. However, this does not imply that they cannot perform well in other engineering jobs.
Training areas that distinguish petroleum engineering graduates from other engineering graduates include:
Whiting, Robert L., Member SPE-AIME, Texas A and M Univ.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the future trends in the supply of petroleum engineering manpower. Historical, U.S. graduate and petroleum engineering manpower. Historical, U.S. graduate and undergraduate total and petroleum engineering enrollment and degree productivity for the past forty years are documented. Trends are analyzed productivity for the past forty years are documented. Trends are analyzed and apparent reasons are given fro the supply-demand imbalance which occurred three times during the period. Future supply of petroleum engineering graduates for the next ten years is predicted upon the basis of past history and also several other assumptions. The number and annual past history and also several other assumptions. The number and annual demand for total engineering and petroleum engineering graduates in drilling and/or production activities during the past five years is summarized. For the next ten years, the petroleum industry estimate of the demand for petroleum engineers is compared with the supply of petroleum engineering graduates.
Petroleum technology program statistics, past and future predictions, are Petroleum technology program statistics, past and future predictions, are presented. Past petroleum engineering enrollment and degree productivity presented. Past petroleum engineering enrollment and degree productivity in Universities in foreign countries are cited and future productivity estimated.
Finally, the impact of the demand for petroleum engineering graduates on the quality and stability of petroleum engineering departments is discussed.
For at least the past twenty years, it has been apparent that all curricula in American Universities exhibited cyclic enrollment and degree productivity. Such behavior can be attributed to the imbalance of supply productivity. Such behavior can be attributed to the imbalance of supply and demand. The author feels that it is not improper to observe at this time that those engaged in certain curricula, such as government, economics, business administration, liberal arts, etc., exhibit little concern for the magnitude of the degree productivity of their particular field of specialization. Consequently, the market is greatly oversupplied with these graduates, jobs are not available, and hence, students are motivated to pursue graduate studies. Usually only a small percentage of the advanced degree recipients are able to find employment in their field of specialization. The author abhors this situation and considers it detrimental to the individual concerned and society in general. The individual's time and resources are wasted, or at least inefficiently utilized, as well as the tax-payers dollars. Such an experience has a serious impact on the individual's dignity since he has spent so much and then finds that there is no use for his talents. America owes it to its young people to eliminate this situation. I am delighted to learn that Governor Briscoe of Texas is initiating action to remedy this deplorable situation.
Engineering has also experienced this oversupply but, fortunately, not to the extent of the aforementioned fields. However, petroleum and aeronautical engineering have experienced periods of great oversupply in the past forty years.
SPE has recognized this as a serious situation for a number of years and has been scheduling forums, such as this one today, annually. The author feels that the future of petroleum engineering education is dependent upon the reconciliation of the supply-demand imbalance of petroleum engineering graduates. It is his fervent hope that as a result of all previous discussions, interested parties will act immediately to prevent a supply-demand imbalance of petroleum engineering graduates in the future.
NORWAY Speech by JENS STOLTENBERG, Ministry of Industry and Energy, Norway Ladies and Gentleman, Representing Norway as a host for this Congress, it is a pleasure for me to be here today to address this audience. It gives me the opportunity to partici- pate in a dialogue on important topics concerning the petroleum industry. Therefore, I am also pleased to see so many different countries at the Congress, as the international aspect is one of the distinctive fea- tures of the industry which we represent. I believe that an open and constructive dialogue is important for the global development of the petroleum sector. To start with, there is especially one issue that I would like to underline in this discussion, namely the fact that a growing number of countries are now being opened for international participation, both upstream and downstream. Although this will inevi- tably lead to a greater competition between pet- roleum provinces for the participation of the international petroleum industry, these new pos- sibilities are still, in my opinion, beneficial to the sound development of this industry. They also rep- resent a challenge to the Norwegian Continental Shelf which I am sure that Norway will be able to meet. This challenge applies both to Norway as a pro- ducer of petroleum, and to the legal and fiscal regime under which the industry has to carry out its activities. As a producer, Norway has established herself as a stable long term supplier of petroleum. Our clear aim is to also remain so for a long time into the future. On this background, the long term reliability of Nor- wegian export of petroleum is a key element in our petroleum policy. An important prerequisite for a succesful develop- ment in all economic sectors is stability, reliability and predictability. The petroleum sector is no excep- tion in this regard. Although I am sure it can be agreed that Norway has a good record as a stable, reliable and predictable petroleum province, a major challenge for the future is still to identify and con- tribute to the implementation of measures that may improve the efficiency in general and the competi- tiveness of the Norwegian Shelf as compared to other petroleum producing countries. This challenge applies both to the authorities and the oil industry in Norway. By increasing the efficiency and cooperation between all parties in the petroleum sector, and by a continuous evaluation and modernisation of the licencing framework, our objective is to achieve a considerable cost-reduction on the Norwegian Shelf in the years to come. The issues I have described above are in my opinion the most important challenges for the Norwegian Continental Shelf in the near future. Thank you for your attention. 105 N
The agent bank's role in lending to major international petroleum projects requires the melding of technical and financial skills at every step of the way. Since such project lending is evolving rapidly, both engineers and bankers are facing together issues new to both. If they are to interface effectively, as is necessary to serve the interest of borrower and bank, the over-all bank environment must be right, and the bank must consciously organize, train, and manage to achieve that result.
In discussing the technical/financial interface in bank lending to major petroleum projects, I propose first to discuss the objective of such propose first to discuss the objective of such lending, next to identify the elements of the task, third to discuss each of these elements sufficiently to identify their technical aspects and the consequent contribution required of technically trained people, then to distill out the essential interrelationships between people trained technically and those trained financially, and finally to describe those techniques of organization, leadership, and training that bring about the type of interaction required.
The objective of major petroleum project lending can be stated as follows: to compete against other banks to win the agent bank's role in a project financing on the basis of (1) the design of the over-all loan, (2) a pricing arrangement that best trades off the minimum net after tax cost to the client and maximum return to the lending banks, (3) confidence of the borrowing client and the host country in the ability of the agent bank to provide timely delivery of the financing while at the sane time enhancing, rather than damaging, the political environment in the present and for the future, and (4) the conviction of the borrower that the agent will act over the full life of the loan in any other way useful to maximize the probability of timely payment of principal and interest on the loan without payment of principal and interest on the loan without disturbing the political relationships of the bank or the oil company in the host country.
Such a broad objective can be analyzed best by breaking it down into its essential underlying elements. These are (1) understand the realities of the over-all situation and how they interrelate to constitute the whole; (2) imagine a structure, selling concept, and implementation technique that gives promise of attaining the overriding objective; (3) present the proposal in such a way as to convince others of its feasibility. These others include senior bank management, the client petroleum company, any project participants in addition to the borrowing client, the relevant host government units, which might include the national oil company or oil ministry as well as central back or other monetary authority, and finally those banks who will participate in the syndicate. participate in the syndicate. Further elements are (4) manage the legal drafting, the preparation of the information memorandum to participating banks, and all the other documentation and communications required to complete the transaction; (5) follow the loan with the clients, host country, and bank participants over its life; (6) recognize early and respond constructively to any crisis that might arise over the life of the loan. For example, should problems be caused by actions of the host government, the agent bank's role is to sit as a third party in discussions about the project, joining the host government and the petroleum company principals. The bank is there to be sure the host principals. The bank is there to be sure the host government fully understands the economic effects of any change not only on the oil company sponsors, but also on bank lenders, and on the image of the country in worldwide financial as well as petroleum circles. That image, of course, will affect the ability of the country to borrow for purposes unrelated to petroleum.
Let us now focus on each of the elements of the task just enumerated in order to identify the technical content of each.
The over-all environment of major petroleum project lending is one of competitive effort. No project lending is one of competitive effort. No individual bank has a pre-ordained position as agent for such a financing.