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Sviridov, Mikhail (Baker Hughes) | Belyaeva, Olga (Salym Petroleum Development) | Podberezhnyy, Maxim (Salym Petroleum Development) | Zverev, Vladimir (Salym Petroleum Development) | Mosin, Anton (Baker Hughes) | Antonov, Yuriy (Baker Hughes)
Summary The West Salym is a Salym Petroleum Development oil field in the Khanty-Mansi region, 120 km southwest of Surgut, Russia. The West Salym oil field was discovered in 1987 and was brought on stream in 2004. The reservoirs vary from fluvial/deltaic to shallow marine deposits. Primary development of the central area of West Salym Field is complete, but the field edges remain undeveloped and potentially attractive. The edges of the field are presented by a mouth bar and characterized by significant structural formation changes, including unknown formation dips and local carbonate concretions and stripes. The sand thickness of the target layer is 15 m, with a minimum oil height of 1 m, which is caused by structural dips and nearby oil/water contact (OWC). These conditions make it difficult to drain the area with geometrically placed wells within the hydrocarbon-saturated layer using well correlation and 3D seismic-interpretation results. Another challenge is the low resistivity contrast between the shale, oil-bearing, and water-bearing layers. This poor contrast complicates the evaluation of reservoir properties and the ability to distinguish different fluid saturations. Two horizontal wells (500 m each) were drilled for the first time in West Salym Field to evaluate capabilities of modern reservoir-navigation technology using deep-azimuthal resistivity technology and advanced data-interpretation software. Drilling of both horizontal wells was improved with a standard wireline logging suite (gamma ray, spontaneous potential, resistivity, density, and neutron) and pressure-testing results available from pilot holes. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) deep-azimuthal resistivity technology has been used in field development, contributing to proactive reservoir navigation. This technology provides input for interpreting an extensive set of multicomponent, multispacing, and multifrequency measurements. These data are usually sufficient to resolve the formation properties in the vicinity of several meters from the wellbore and to adjust the direction of the well trajectory. However, because of time restrictions, very simple resistivity models and only a subset of the data are often used for real-time interpretation. Moreover, the structure of the data subset is often predefined to provide the maximum depth of investigation, neglecting the resolution quality of the formation parameters. In some fields, it can lead to increased uncertainties during reservoir navigation. The data-interpretation software mentioned in this paper has excellent performance and enables real-time processing of the full set of downhole measurements derived from multilayered formation models. This case highlights the first use of this software application in the Russian Federation. The software is dependent on the method of the most-probable parameter combination, and it maintains an optimal balance between the information recovered from the measured data and all available a priori knowledge about the formation structure. The ability to accurately involve a priori information enhances the capability to resolve layers with low resistivity contrasts. Moreover, the inversion software is user-guided, enabling precise monitoring of lateral and vertical changes in the geology. The data-inversion software ensured successful reservoir navigation in the challenging conditions of the West Salym Field. All steering decisions were made according to a consistent and reliable multilayered formation resistivity model that was constructed in real time during drilling. A good net/gross ratio was achieved of approximately 75% for one well and 50% for the other. Post-drilling analysis showed that geometric drilling without reservoir-navigation technology would lower the net/gross ratio to less than 40%.
Both attenuation and tuning are frequency Here we study the combined effect of attenuation and dependent. We only consider a contrast in attenuation tuning on the reflection coefficient of a layer exhibiting between the layer and the non-attenuating medium. We use high attenuation contrast to the background medium, but no the analytical interlayer-flow model, which is based on acoustic impedance contrast. To investigate the combined Biot's theory of poroelasticity, to model attenuation in the effect of frequency-dependent attenuation and tuning on the layer. The resulting complex velocity for the attenuating reflectivity of a layer, we use: (1) the analytical solution of layer is used in the analytical solution for the complex the interlayer-flow model (White et al., 1975; Carcione and reflection coefficient of a layer embedded in an elastic Picotti, 2006), simulating the influence of the frequencydependent medium. Attenuation combined with tuning in layers can attenuation; and (2) a 1D analytical solution of generate reflection coefficients with significant (1) the reflection coefficient of a layer embedded in an elastic amplitude ( 10 %) and (2) frequency dependence. Our medium (Brekhovskikh, 1980), where we vary the layer results can be applied to hydrocarbon reservoirs with high thickness with respect to the wavelength, simulating the attenuation but low acoustic impedance contrast to the influence of tuning.
ABSTRACT: In this study, a series of experimental tests was carried out to investigate the effect of polyurea type spraying membrane (SM) interlayer on load bearing capacities of the concrete slabs with the size of 600 mm × 600 mm × 100 mm. Different concrete slabs with SM interlayer, with conventional membrane geotextile interlayer and without a membrane interlayer were casted to compare their load bearing capacities and deformation characteristics under both static and dynamic (impact) loading. According to the result of this study, SM interlayers were found to be advantageous in comparison with the conventional membrane textiles against both static and dynamic loading. From the static load tests, the best bearing capacity was obtained with the concrete slabs without membrane layer. On the other hand, the concrete slabs with SM interlayer exhibited the best impact resistance performance. In addition to having a significant increase in load bearing capacity, the ductility of the concrete slabs was found to improve using the polyurea type SM interlayer.
The concrete linings of tunnels excavated by conventional methods are usually designed to have doubleshell, a temporary concrete lining (primary lining) to stabilize the opening after excavation and a permanent lining (secondary lining) casted for long-term purposes of serviceability and stability.
During the last two decades, important progresses were made in shotcrete technology, using different water-proof engineering materials being sprayed by robots instead of setting by hand. The conventional geo-membrane products are not practical and not convenient to be used on rough surfaces resulting from blasting operations, edges, junction parts of tunnels/underground opening, cross-sections with complex geometries. To prevent the tearing of the geomembranes, some additional textile materials like felts are used which cause an important time consuming during the water resisting system setting. The conventional geo-membranes could not adhere to the concrete surface and have bonding problems preventing the two concrete linings to work together.
The conventional membrane textiles heated to be bonded each other are not practical to set continuous water resisting liners, whereas it takes a short time to set continuous liners applying spraying membrane (SM) materials which allow for composite behavior supplying two-sided bond with primary and secondary concrete linings.
Wensong, Huang (Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina) | Heping, Chen (Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina) | Zheng, Meng (Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina)
Abstract With the annual growth of development scale and production, the research of heavy oil and oil sands become more and more important. Due to the characteristics of heavy oil and oil sands, the degree of reserves recovery is restricted by development mode. So there is a big difference in classification criterions and evaluation techniques of reserves in the world. In this paper, using the major heavy oil and oil sands accumulation areas —Venezuela heavy oil belt and Canada oil sands as example, we analyse the reservoir characteristic of heavy oil and oil sands, and then discuss the classification and evaluation techniques of reserves suitable for different development modes. The heavy oil belt in Venezuela and oil sands in Canada are all characterized by huge thickness, middle-fine sandstone, loose cementation, high porosity and high permeability. To adapt different development mode, we establish corresponding evaluation criterions for reservoir, including porosity, permeability, shale content, saturation, barrier and interbed, the thickness and width of continuous oil layer and so on. We classify the reserves as OOIP, economic reserves, reserves for horizontal well, reserves for steam flooding (SF)/ cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and reserves for SAGD. Using logging and geophysical techniques, we evaluate and classify the reserves. 1.Introduction Heavy oil and oil sands are characterized by shallow buried depth, large thickness, huge reserves and unconsolidated structures. Because crude oil has high viscosity, conventional vertical wells generally have no or extremely low productivity. Currently, these reservoirs are predominantly developed by horizontal wells in two stages: cold production and thermal production. All these conditions have presented new requirements on contents and methods of reserve evaluation. In this essay, through study on reservoir features and corresponding development techniques for heavy oil in Venezuela and oil sands in Canada, we put forward reserve assessment methods and techniques by class for various development modes. 2.Reservoir evaluation and selection criteria for heavy oil and oil sands development Currently, cold production (CP) is the prevailing development method adopted for heavy oil in Venezuela, at the same time, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), steam flooding (SF) and SAGD have been tested. Oil sands in Canada are mostly developed by SAGD and open mining. A series of reservoir selection criteria have been proposed to cope with requirements of different development methods with horizontal wells on oil layers (Table 1).
Simon, Igor (Science and Technology Center of Gazprom Neft) | Koryabkin, Vitaly (Science and Technology Center of Gazprom Neft) | Semenikhin, Artyom (IBM Science and Technology Center) | Gruzdev, Arseniy (IBM Science and Technology Center)
In this paper, we present a methodology for determining lithological difference at the bottom of the well during drilling operations. Our approach is based on the analysis of mechanical parameters of drilling. These parameters are receiving as real-time time-series data. The central part of the methodology is a model based on the machine learning approach. Our model and the whole methodology can be applied to real drilling cases. The set of parameters that are required for the methodology can be collected from the typical mud logging station.
The main use case for the methodology is an optimization of the geosteering process. The most modern geosteering approaches are based on the LWD data. It is the main restriction of common approaches for the adjustment of the direction of drilling. The problem is that the LWD sensors are placed for a few decimals meters before the bit in a typical Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) design. As a result, these a few tens of meters are drilling in a "blind window".
The methodology is illustrated on the historical data of drilling of the Novoportovskoe oilfield. At the current stage, the results of the testing show that suggested methodology can correctly classify two out of three cases of changes of lithotypes while drilling.