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Abstract In today’s operations in the conditions of drilling technologies active development, well completion and production intensification, there is a tendency towards increasing growth lengths of horizontal sections of horizontal drilling volumes, resulting in an increase of multi-zone hydraulic fracturing stages. With existing conventional horizontal well logging methods, alternative technologies that utilize tracer-based inflow indicators are becoming more common. These technologies enable horizontal well production logging and allow users to obtain long-term analytical information. The objective of this article is to analyze the efficiency of several production logging methods applied to horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing at Sredne-Nazymskoye field. During the project, horizontal well oil and water inflows were monitored using a 15-stage hydraulic fracturing and the application of marked polymer-coated proppant. Monodisperse polymer microglobules, encoded for each stage of the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and interacting selectively with water and oil, were used as markers. Upon completion of the stimulation works and once the well was put into operation, formation fluid sampling from the wellhead was carried out with subsequent analysis to determine the concentration of markers of each code and was associated with fracturing stages. Well production logging with the marked proppant application was carried out periodically for several months, and the horizontal well profiles were built on the basis of the obtained analytical data. The results allowed us to conduct a long-term analysis of the stimulation efficiency for each of the hydraulic fracturing stages. We also used the data to assess the formation reserves development for each of the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing stages. In contrast to conventional logging methods, the primary advantage of the horizontal well production logging technology is that there is no requirement to use special means of tool deliver and there is no risk of down-hole tools getting stuck or a loss or ambiguity of interpretation. During the course of the study, the performance of the monitoring technology was confirmed using flow indicators placed in the hydraulic fractures, providing long-term selective interaction of marker particles with water and oil parts of formation fluid. The obtained geological and technical information contributes to further planning of effective geological and technical measures and additional oil recovery.
Arefyev, Sergey (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC) | Makienko, Vladimir (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC) | Shestakov, Dmitry (Kogalymneftegaz TME LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC) | Galiev, Marat (Kogalymneftegaz TME LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC) | Ovchinnikov, Kirill (Geosplit LLC) | Malyavko, Evgeny (Geosplit LLC) | Novikov, Igor (Geosplit LLC)
Abstract In recent years, oil and gas producing companies have increasingly migrated towards using tracer-based methods to obtain data on horizontal wells operation. The interest in these technologies is largely due to their ability to obtain data over a long period of time with a radical decrease in the required resources, thereby providing new opportunities for well management and increasing cumulative production. The aim of this article is to compare the results of applying different tracer-based systems in one well. Tracer-based technologies produced by different manufacturers vary in physical principles of operation, as well as in the methods of their injection into the well or reservoir. Tracers designed for long-term work are injected into the reservoir with marked proppant or lowered into the wells in the lower completion cassettes. For the first time, alternative tracer-based systems were applied in one well, ensuring the selectivity of work with oil and water. This allowed us to compare the results and evaluate the technology's advantages and disadvantages. The well was completed by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing with the possibility of subsequent port control using coiled tubing. Each of five well intervals were equipped with two tracer cartridges fixed on an MFrac sleeve on both sides. In addition, proppant with markers was pumped in 3 months. The unique signature of the marker was used for each fracturing stage (5 unique signatures for each of 5 fracturing stages). As a result of this world-first field application of alternative tracer-based systems, valuable analytical material was obtained related to the quantitative analysis of various tracers, the performance of different polymers, and the stability of the tracers’ allocation in the formation fluid. The data obtained confirmed the character of the marked proppant pack washing out with the formation fluid in comparison with the tracer casings attached to MFrac port on both sides. The following results were achieved upon completion: additional tools were obtained for the correlation of data on the tracers amount and concentration, and comparative indicators of different tracer technologies in terms of efficiency and work accuracy were identified. It was also confirmed that the marked proppant is not washed out into the well under these reservoir conditions. The authors of this article were the first to compare the technologies with different approaches to the tracers’ placement in a well within one project. Based on the project results, the obtained data allowed us to answer many pressing questions from oil and gas producing companies related to the comparison of tracer systems.
Chaplygin, Dmitry (Company Salym Petroleum) | Azamatov, Marat (Company Salym Petroleum) | Khamadaliev, Damir (Company Salym Petroleum) | Yashnev, Viktor (Company Salym Petroleum) | Novikov, Igor (Geosplit LLC) | Drobot, Albina (Geosplit LLC) | Buyanov, Anton (Geosplit LLC) | Ovchinnikov, Kirill (Geosplit LLC) | Husein, Nadir (Geosplit LLC)
The paper describes the use of new generation of inflow chemical tracer application at Salym Petroleum Development Upper-Salym oilfield as a part of Smart Field project. This kind of well surveying using indicators that allow the evaluation of the inflow composition for each hydraulic fracturing port in horizontal wells remotely, without any additional risky and costly downhole activities.
The new inflow chemical tracer technology is based on the use of nano-particle quantum dots, which give a level of high accuracy in quantitative analysis of fluid inflow. Markers, which are micromillimeter in size, are inserted into the polymer coating of the proppant. The technology involves the injection of marked polymer-coated proppant in the process of MHF (multi-stage hydraulic fracturing). Once the MHF is done, and the well is producing, the fluid samples are taken at surface and tested in a laboratory using machine learning software. Once the obtained data is interpreted, a flow profile of oil and water can be generated for each frac stage.
One of the main advantages of marker technologies is that they provide data over a long period of time, with a significant reduction in operating cost. It opens the door for new opportunities in terms of more accurate reservoir characterization and better hydrocarbon recovery. The key element of the technology is the use of specialized intelligent machine-learning software based on Random Forest algorithm to produce production flow profile.
The described methodology was used during the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing operation on oil wells 8105 and 8064 of Upper-Salym field. The volume of proppant injection at each stage was 20 tons, out of which 15 tons were of marked proppant containing a unique code for each stage. As soon as marked proppant has a contact with well fluid markers are emitted into fluid and sampling at the wellhead can be done any time when information required. The results of samples analysis are reports with graph showing quantitative distribution of water and oil production of each fracturing interval.
The new generation of inflow markers allows for continuous production, surveillance and quantitative analysis of oil and water phase from each fracturing stage. This enables better decision making to optimize the production and make better decisions for water conformance interventions. This surveillance method does not require complex and risky well interventions or production shutdowns, making it substantially more cost effective than the existing conventional methods.
Optimization of oil production, remote monitoring for risks minimization, reduction of operating costs - all these are the results of the introduction of Smart Fields technology systems in the Salym group of oilfields.
Gorbachev, Yaroslav (Company, Salym Petroleum) | Chaplygin, Dmitry (Company, Salym Petroleum) | Khamadaliev, Damir (Company, Salym Petroleum) | Yashnev, Viktor (Company, Salym Petroleum) | Novikov, Igor (Geosplit LLC) | Ovchinnikov, Kirill (Geosplit LLC) | Katashov, Alexander (Geosplit LLC) | Malyavko, Evgeny (Geosplit LLC) | Saprykina, Kseniya (Geosplit LLC) | Kiselev, Vasily (Geosplit LLC)
Abstract The development of hydraulic fracturing technology began with single operations and is currently the most effective tool for increasing the productivity of wells and managing field development. Without the application of the hydraulic fracturing method, many fields would not have been successfully put into operation. For example, in the USA, hydraulic fracturing technology is used almost everywhere, which enabled an increase in the share of recoverable reserves by 25-30%. The first hydraulic fracturing in our country was carried out in 1952. After this, the number of such works increased for several years, but then declined. This was due to the industrial development of large oil fields in Western Siberia. The application of hydraulic fracturing technology was resumed in the 1980s and has been growing steadily ever since (Usachev, 1986). Horizontal drilling technologies are currently developing at a fairly rapid pace, which entails an increase in the accuracy of penetrating a given part of the formation. Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing is primarily used in the well to increase the flow rate. It is expected that in the perspective of 2019-2020, the share of horizontal drilling will reach 46-50%, which is due to plans for the intensive development of new fields in Eastern Siberia (Figure 1). Figure 1: Dynamics of the number of wells completed using horizontal and controlled directional drilling in Russia in 2008–2026 (fact and forecast), units There has been a steady increase in the share of horizontal drilling with the total volume of production in Russia since 2008 (Figure 2). This indicates qualitative changes in the technological approaches of today's production companies. Figure 2: Dynamics of throughput volume in production drilling in Russia in 2008–2026 (fact and forecast), mln. m. Technical solutions are required for the delivery of geophysical equipment to the horizontal section of the well for horizontal wells production logging using an electric centrifugal pump (ESP). The existing Y-tool technology allows for lowering the geophysical equipment to the coiled tubing system, therefore bypassing the ESP system in close proximity to well operation mode, but this increases the well completion cost by 25%. Along with the conventional methods of horizontal wells production logging such as PLT logging, oil producing companies are increasingly beginning to apply innovative methods based on marker technology. This method applies the flow indicators that are able to trace the flow of each phase into the well separately and continuously for several years. The objective of this article is to describe the results of using the fluorescent microsphere method, taking into account their long-term use for estimating the inflow structure from each port of hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells. This helps users to avoid risky and costly downhole operations at the pilot development stage. Markers are monodisperse polymer spheres containing their unique code for each hydraulic fracturing stage. In the presence of a stream of water or oil over the surface of the proppant, only markers corresponding to their phase are released. Upon completion of all the works in the well, it is put in the planned mode of operation. After this, sampling of the formation fluid from the wellhead is performed. A specialized laboratory analyzes the samples to determine the concentration of markers for each code. Production logging of the well with the application of marked proppant is carried out continuously for several years. The inflow profiles of the formation fluid along the horizontal well were designed on the basis of data obtained by analytical comparison. Long-term production logging will allow for a long-term analysis of the effectiveness of stimulation for each of the hydraulic fracturing stages and will aid in assessing the reservoir section's reserves. One of the main advantages of this technology compared to traditional methods is the ability to obtain data on the intervals operation without requiring special means of instrument delivery. As a result, the technology minimizes the risk of downhole equipment getting stuck and is not subject to ambiguity in data interpretation. The technology of marker production logging has received confirmation throughout the market based on its performance. The placement of inflow indicators was carried out in the hydraulic fractures, thereby ensuring the long-term selective interaction of marker particles with the water and oil phases of the formation fluid. Information on the inflow profile obtained as a result of the analysis allows for planning effective geological and technical measures and leads to an increase in the hydrocarbon extraction coefficient.
Abstract With the view to obtain reliable information in difficult geological conditions, the oil and gas industry is increasingly mastering Big Data to optimize technological processes and prevent accidents. Contemporary Big Data technologies, predictive analysis and machine-learning methods are changing the general image of many industries, and the oil and gas industry is no exception. New players are quickly emerging throughout the industry, and digitalization will affect the entire value chain in the oil and gas industry. Among the most promising segments for the transition to digital technologies are asset management and infrastructure facilities, field development, geophysical services, pipelines and processing. The applied production logging system using markers allows for evaluating horizontal well (HW) production after multi-stage hydraulic fracturing (MFrac). In addition, the performance of each oil and water stage can also be evaluated. Based on this information control, users can leverage the technology to optimize their operations. The technology is based on the use of marker-reporters with quantum dots placed in the polymer proppant coating or in the lower completion. Unlike conventional methods of horizontal well logging, this technology does not require any special means of equipment delivery and eliminates the risk of downhole equipment getting stuck or ambiguous data interpretation. From 2017-2019, production logging technology using markers was applied in more than 30 horizontal wells in the fields of LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC.