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Abstract This paper discusses social impacts of offshore oil and gas development on human communities, families, and individuals in the Gulf of Mexico. It will describe the findings of selected Minerals Management Service research efforts. Impacts from oil and gas development on communities, families, and individuals are difficult to identify for several reasons. First, many social forces impinge on the family and individual such as mass communication, changes in education, and increasing community heterogeneity, just to name a few. Second, most impacts of oil and gas are not unique to that industry. Even the effects of fly-in/fly-out shift work are found in other industries. Finally, the oil and gas industry is not a single entity. It is a complex array of different operators, local business people, port directors, fabrication operators, etc. Therefore, change and effects vary from one community to the next in the same geographic region. However, commonalties do exist. The nature of these effects suggest that "classic" social impact assessment techniques can be improved and made more explicit by developing a "multilevel" conceptual framework. How communities and industry are affected and respond to social change represents key factors in community development strategies. These factors are pieces of a larger historical context of industrial development and social change, but they are manifested in a unique area and people that have been involved in the offshore oil industry since its birth. The authors use Structuration Theory to argue that it is important for industry, community, people as well as government to understand the complexities of this change and its integration, which ultimately effects the dynamics of social institutions. This paper discusses these changes, along with responses to these changes that can be used and developed by government, the oil and gas industry and local communities. Introduction This paper considers the effects of Gulf of Mexico offshore oil and gas development on the "human community"-people, families, towns, cities, and states. It does this from the viewpoint of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-defined requirement that the Minerals Management Service (MMS) assess the socioeconomic impacts of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease sales. The first section of this paper outlines some of the challenges inherent in doing social impact assessment (SIA) for lease sales in the Gulf of Mexico Region (GOMR). It discusses challenges associated with "baseline" data, defining the "affected area" as well as the vast multitude of enterprises known as the "offshore oil industry." Section two describes the underlying logic of what we term the "classic" SIA and the analytical relationship this approach has to "boomtowns." We then argue that this logic is not generally applicable to the effects of offshore oil and gas development in the GOMR, even though, in contemporary SIA the "boomtown" framework is still largely conceptualized and employed. However, with offshore development in the GOMR, the source of disruption is not located in the community. Instead oil development is a source of social and economic change that affects communities, the region, the nation and to a certain extent the world. It is not possible or practical to study every community in the GOMR. Therefore, we must understand larger level trends while simultaneously pinpointing likely community-level effects. Pieces of the puzzle are present throughout existing literature. We are merely attempting to make explicit the various levels of analysis needed to comprehend the multitude of effects.
Abstract The aim of this article is to share the experience of Total E&P Bolivie (hereinafter referred as "TEPBO" or "the Company") on the implementation of an Archaeological management Plan (AMP), which ensured a proper archaeological impact management on the Ipati-Aquio blocks operations. These operations are located whitin the Alto Parepeti Indigenous territory in the Bolivian lowlands region. We base our analysis on field experiences and lessons learned after an incidental archaeological discovery of a pre-Hispanic Cementery during the construction works of the Incahuasi Gas Processing Facility (CPF) located within a Guarani Indigenous Territory. This incidental archaeological discovery triggered public controversies pointing archaeological, social and human rights impacts; with important consequences for the Company, in terms of reputation, relationship with stakeholders and also financial consequences due to the relocation of the planned facility on the archaeological site. In order to ensure the non recurrence of this impact, solve the public controversies and tackle societal risks for future operations, TEPBO implemented an integral strategy leaded by the Social Team and accompanied by Archaeology specialists. It implied, in first order, a set of mitigation measures based on agreements with the Guarani community to address the direct impact on Cultural heritage, ritual and symbolic place of ancestral human burials. On the other hand, in order to address the risks of archaeological impact on future operations, TEPBO designed and implemented an AMP. The AMP is based on preventive measures: i) previous participative social and archaeological assessments; ii) monitoring during the construction phases, in order to identify possible archaeological material; and, if it where the case, ensure the application of the Archaeological finding procedure. This procedure requires going beyond legal and technical archaeological works by ensuring a proper communication, consultation and dialogue. Through close collaboration, the implementation of the Plan helped to rebuild a trusting relationship with the Guarani Community at different levels and with regional authorities. To date, it also helped to prevent recurrence of impacts on Cultural heritage and Indigenous rights, by the non repetition of archaeological impact. Over the last 2 years, the Company and contractors actively integrated archaeological risk management from the early stages of any new project and on during the execution. The AMP thought the Guaraní community about their ancesters and also helped the community to increase- awareness about their cultural heritage. In their Strategic Planning (called Life's Plan) they included Archaeology within its Cultural Heritage Program. As well in latest consultation process during the Envionmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the Guarani community insisted to include not only prevention and mitigation measures for archaeological impact, but also the diffusion in community schools. TEPBO archeological experience thought us that compliance with regulations is necessary, but not sufficient to manage risks adequately. Achieve a proper engagement, consultation and dialogue with communities is crucial in impact management, especially in regard of Cultural Heritage in Indigenous Territories. Archeological findings, especially human burials, are not just a technical issue: it is overall a symbolic, cultural and therefore human rights issue. Mitigation of archaeological impact by granting non recurrence of an impact may allow positive effects on cultural empowerment in communities. The conflict became an opportunity to raise cultural heritage awareness among operational staff, and the guarani embraced their heritage in their Life's Plan.
Betre, M.. (Conservation International) | Diaz, P.. (Conservation International) | Weikel, M.. (Conservation International) | Mora, M.. (Conservation International) | Donovan, J.. (Conservation International Liberia) | Moretz, A.. (Chevron) | Connick, S.. (Chevron) | Anwar, N.. (Chevron)
Abstract Water, biodiversity and ecosystem services, are often recognized and managed by oil and gas companies as environmental issues, while at the same time, they frequently have important social dimensions. A global review of practices among oil, gas, and mining companies revealed that while there is increasing recognition of the linkages between the social and environmental dimensions of many issues, and the benefits of applying a more integrated and holistic approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) efforts, there is still limited evidence of integration taking place. A number of opportunities are identified for oil and gas companies to adopt a more integrated approach, particularly in the practice of environmental and social impact assessment and management, and in planning for strategic social investments where projects can be designed to achieve both environmental and social goals (e.g., community projects that use conservation incentive agreements; or freshwater conservation and water access, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects). A case study is presented on the implementation of Conservation Agreements (CAs) in Liberia. This work, conducted in partnership by Conservation International (CI) and Chevron, demonstrates some of the challenges and advantages of taking an integrated approach. Through implementation of CAs, CI and Chevron are working towards providing a variety of social benefits to local communities while incentivizing a reduction in pressure to the environment, namely mangrove destruction and sea turtle egg harvesting.
Major of the Dept. of Archaeology at the advantages of the RM4 are 33 digital University of Bologna.