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Small- and medium-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) is different from conventional LNG in trading distances, target markets, and application areas. Small- and medium-scale LNG may better coordinate needs between regional gas producers and consumers. Cluster LNG is a new concept of LNG technology suitable for emerging market environments. High performance of cluster LNG originates from higher liquefaction temperature and the adoption of efficient refrigerants for the temperature ranges. The inherent high performance of cluster LNG enables low capital expenditure (CAPEX) and low operational expenditure (OPEX). Small-scale LNG has so far constituted only a minor portion of global LNG production.
Abstract Small and medium scale LNG is different from conventional LNG in trading distances, target markets, and application areas. Small and medium scale LNG may liaise needs between regional gas producers and consumers. Restrictions and differences of the regional energy tasks may call for different approaches in technology and business model. Cluster LNG is new concept LNG technology suitable for the emerging market environments. High performance of Cluster LNG is originated from higher liquefaction temperature and the adoption of efficient refrigerants for the temperature ranges. The inherent high performance of Cluster LNG enables low CAPEX and low OPEX. Despite of increased containment system cost over Conventional one, cost reduction in the Cluster LNG liquefaction system prevails overall economics within 3,000 ~ 5,000 Km distance from production to consumer sites. The high performance of the Cluster LNG brings competitiveness in small and medium scale LNG business requiring 75 ~ 85% of CAPEX and 65 ~ 75% OPEX compared with Conventional one. In addition, the CO2 emission per unit LNG production for Cluster LNG is 60 ~ 70% of the Conventional LNG. The Cluster LNG technology and business is well matched for small and medium LNG business with cost-effectiveness and flexibility. After extensive engineering verifications and test plant operations, several commercial Cluster LNG projects are under negotiation stages. The Cluster LNG technology also increases local contents with wider choices of equipment vendors and system providers together with less project budgets. Flexibility and cost competitiveness of the Cluster LNG would bring paradigm change in small and medium LNG business.
Abstract Recently gas has been more important role over coal and fuel oil in global energy sources, and the trend is expected to continue at least for 20 ~ 30 years. Southeast Asian countries are also coping with the trends and opportunities. Gas demands in the region have been increased and expected to increase rapidly with the relatively low price over fuel oil. However, the new emerging gas consumers are somewhat different from those of conventional large quantity LNG. The new consumers need more flexible and diverse supply of LNG for their specific needs. At the same time, there are many potential gas producers who endeavor to monetize their stranded gas fields by supplying LNG to nearby markets. New multi-producer and multi-consumer market requires different approaches in LNG production and distribution, and small scale LNG would be more appropriate for the new environment. Cluster LNG, which is based on increased pressure LNG liquefaction, has advantage in reducing liquefaction power, consequently overall CAPEX and OPEX. On the contrary, the produced LNG should be stored in increased pressure containment system. Nonetheless, it does not cause inconveniences to end-users as long as the integrated liquefaction, transportation, and regasification system is provided. At the same time, the increased pressure LNG system has superior carbon dioxide (CO2) emission index. The first Cluster LNG plant is being implemented in Indonesia. The plant would produce 5 mmscfd equivalent LNG and the produced LNG will be transported by LNG trucks to typically 300 ~ 500 Km away multiple industrial customers. The plant is expected to start operation around the end of 2014. High efficiency Cluster LNG will have overall competitiveness in CAPEX and OPEX compared with conventional LNG. Extensive applications of the innovative technology may bring paradigm changes in Southeast Asian LNG industry from long-term perspective.
Abstract There are many small scale onshore and offshore gas fields and there are also many diverse small LNG consumers around the world. However, smaller unit of gas fields could not be practically developed due to unfavorable unit price competition with larger ones. Therefore, many stranded gas fields are still waiting for new viable technology for the small unit production. In order to have unit production cost competitiveness, CAPEX and OPEX should be reduced. Cluster LNG technology based on increased pressure liquefaction has distinct advantages in OPEX and CAPEX with inherent high liquefaction efficiency together with superior environmental performance. One of the potential gas consumers for the small capacity LNG would be fuel oil fired diesel engine or gas turbine power plant operators who eagerly attempt to change the fuel source to natural gas due to high fuel oil price. Most of the cases, power plants are located far away from the gas fields, so efficient gas transportation solutions have to be provided. LNG is efficient means of gas transportation between 2 different locations. On the other hand, it requires complicated gas treatment and liquefaction systems which results in high delivery cost. Considered that gas engines need gas as final form not as LNG one, if the interim product of LNG liquefaction is simplified, it would be beneficial to overall project economy. As an application example, extensive economic studies for 0.5 MTPA Cluster FLNG, LNG transportation vessel, and 350 MW capacity LNG power plant have been carried out. Typical distance from the gas field to power plant is 2,000 Km though it can have competitiveness up to around 5,000 Km. The smaller unit LNG production system with high competitiveness would activate developments of stranded gas field, and it would change business paradigm by bringing flexibilities and diversities in the industry.
Lee, JungHan (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd. (DSME)) | Kang, JoongKyoo (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd. (DSME)) | Moon, YoungSik (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd. (DSME)) | Yoo, SeongJin (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd. (DSME))
Abstract Conventional LNG with ambient pressure has been known as efficient means of gas transportation by reducing the volume to 1/600. However, since end-users always need as gas form not LNG itself, LNG may be regarded as interim means of transportation, and at the same time, LNG production and storage with different pressure conditions are also acceptable provided they meet cost competitiveness. Increased pressure Cluster LNG has been developed as an economic solution for small and medium scale natural gas chains. Small and medium scale LNG plants could not be practically developed due to difficulties in unit price competition with large scale LNG plants. Considered small and medium scale gas markets are increasing in Southeast Asia, cost-effective solution for the LNG chain is very much demanding. The current LNG infrastructures with large volume facilities may not be suitable for the new diverse requirements from scattered small and medium gas fields and consumers. DSME has developed innovative LNG solution, called Cluster LNG, which may bring substantial changes from the traditional LNG chain. To implement the cost-effective integrated LNG system, technologies in each sector of LNG chain, production, transportation, and regasification have been developed. In the Cluster LNG, natural gas is liquefied at increased pressure instead of ambient pressure to have overall efficiency. LNG liquefaction at the increased pressure requires less power in the refrigeration system with relatively higher liquefaction temperature and adoption of more efficient refrigerant for the temperature range, and it also simplifies the gas treatment system with CO2 tolerant liquefaction characteristics. The increased pressure LNG containment system, which would be key factor for overall economics, has been developed with innovative hybrid design against cryogenic temperature and high pressure to achieve the cost-effectiveness task. In order to verify the cluster LNG liquefaction, regasification process, loading and unloading operation, and diverse safety requirements, a bench scale pilot plant was constructed and extensive operation tests have been carried out. The operation results show outstanding liquefaction performance compared with conventional LNG plants. Now the developed system of the Cluster LNG is ready for commercialization. The Cluster LNG is ideal for small and medium LNG production, transportation, and consumption with the inherent cost-effectiveness and flexibility. The transportation of the Cluster LNG can be done by ordinary bulk carriers or containerships retrofitted for the Cluster LNG containment system instead of purpose built LNG carriers. Typical size of Cluster LNG containment system is 200 ~ 500 m. Hence, the storage tanks for production, transportation, and regasification sites can be implemented with 10 ~ 100 clusters of pre-fabricated cylinders. The Cluster LNG will provide flexible business model by quick decision and execution with lower project cost. The competitive Cluster LNG system will activate stranded gas field developments around world, which ultimately would contribute to existing and developing gas markets. Especially, the Cluster LNG may provide gas supply solutions for smaller demand markets such as diesel engine driven power plants in remote islands and utility gas distribution networks to many small and medium provinces in Southeast Asia.