The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:

- Management
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics

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The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:

- Management
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics

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SUMMARY Three dimensional seismic inversion analyses were performed in 3D surveys over North Dbissan, Al Ajouz–Zamleh and Al Kadir areas in the Bishri Block in the Northeast Palmyride Mountains in Syria. Triassic Kurachine Dolomite is the main oil and gas producing unit in this area and the production mainly comes from localized fracture porosity in the formation. The layered impedance data show increased vertical resolution, increased coherency and less noise compared to the original seismic data and provide a better understanding of reservoir characteristics in Kurachine Dolomite. The ‘main pay zone‘ within Kurachine Dolomite is characterized by high impedance layers which are almost pure dolomite. Lower impedance layers are above and below the main pay zone. The low impedance layers are argillaceous dolomites with clay content up to 30 percent, and they are less prone to fracturing, possibly due to the clay content.

argillaceous dolomite, dimensional seismic stratigraphic inversion, dimensional stratigraphic inversion, dolomite, expanded abstract, impedance layer, inversion, inverted data, Kurachine dolomite, Northeast Palmyride Mountain, pay zone, Reservoir Characterization, stratigraphic inversion, stratigraphic prospect, Syria, Upstream Oil & Gas

Geophysics:

- Geophysics > Seismic Surveying > Surface Seismic Acquisition (1.00)
- Geophysics > Seismic Surveying > Seismic Processing (0.70)
- Geophysics > Seismic Surveying > Seismic Modeling > Velocity Modeling > Seismic Inversion (0.50)

Oilfield Places:

- Asia > Middle East > Syria > Homs Governorate > D'Bissan Field (0.99)
- Asia > Middle East > Syria > Homs Governorate > Al Kadir Field (0.99)
- Asia > Middle East > Syria > Homs Governorate > Bishri Field (0.97)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

This paper describes the effect of geometric non-linearity on the deformation analysis for linear elastic grounds using the FE analysis. This FE analysis has been formulated by the finite deformation theory based on the up-dated Lagrangian scheme. A deformation characteristic is discussed in comparison the finite deformation theory and the infinitesimal deformation theory to study the effect of geometric nonlinearity. As a result, three main conclusions have been obtained. 1) At the time of small deformation, the both analyses lead the same results, 2) At the time of large deformation, because of the effect of surface expansions, the infinitesimal deformation analysis overestimates lateral displacements when compared with the finite deformation one, and 3) At the time of large deformation, because of the rotation effect, the finite deformation analysis overestimates vertical displacements on a place where the load concentrates when compared with the infinitesimal deformation one. To this end, careful choices are required to use deformation theory in treating a large deformation problem. INTRODUCTION In continuum mechanics, a "non-linearity" is divided into two phenomena. One is "material non-linearity", the other is "geometric non-linearity". The former is popular and its characteristic has been expressed by using constitutive model like an elasto-plastic or elastvisco plastic model since the old days. On the other hand, the latter is often neglected because of its complexity. Instead of considering geometric non-linearity, the infinitesimal deformation theory is often used. This theory supposes that deformation during loading is very small, as if the body doesn't deform before and after loading. So, even if an elasto-plastic model is used, deformation obtained from analyses using this theory is geometrically linear (deformation gradient is linear). However, when the actual body deformed during loading, the geometric nonlinearity appeared. This theory is not suitable to investigate the deformation strictly in the deformation analysis, though the governing equations are simple. Under this situation, "Finite deformation theory (Finite strain theory)" is necessary.

deformation, Deformation analysis, deformation behavior, deformation theory, displacement, embankment toe, expansion, finite deformation analysis, finite deformation theory, geometric non-linearity, infinitesimal deformation analysis, infinitesimal deformation theory, linear elastic ground, linear elastic model, loading step, rotation, vertical displacement

Azimi, Hamed (Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Shiri, Hodjat (Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Mahdianpari, Masoud (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, C-CORE)

Abstract Ice gouging is one of the major menaces to the subsea pipelines crossing the Arctic (e.g., Beaufort Sea) or the non-Arctic (e.g., Caspian Sea) shallow waters. Burial of the sea-bottom-founded infrastructures is regarded as a feasible method for protection of the subsea assets against the ice gouging threat. These pipelines are commonly embedded underneath the deepest ice-scoured records in the area, whereas the pipeline system is still threatened by the ice-induced soil displacement developed into the ice tip owing to the shear resistance of the seabed soil. Determination of the sub-gouge soil displacements is a governing design factor for the subsea structures in the Arctic offshore that commonly need costly laboratory studies and long-running finite element (FE) analyses to guarantee the operational integrity of the subsea pipeline against the ice-gouging event. Thus, the industry is still seeking more cost-effective, reliable, and faster alternative approaches for simulation of the iceberg-seabed-pipeline interaction process to minimize the collision risk of ice keels with the subsea structures. Recently, the application of machine learning (ML) in different fields has witnessed impressive growth since the ML technology is sufficiently precise, quick, reliable, and cost-effective to model various linear and non-linear problems. In this study, three robust ML algorithms comprising the Decision Tree Regression (DTR), Random Forest Regression (RFR), and Extra Tree Regression (ETR) models were used for the first time to simulate the iceberg-seabed interaction process in the sandy seabed. Using the parameters governing the ice-seabed interaction mechanism, a set of the DTR, RFR, and ETR models were developed. To verify the ML models, a comprehensive dataset was constructed and the data was divided into two sub-samples including the training (70% of data) and testing (the remaining 30% of the data) datasets. Subsequently, for the DTR, RFR, and ETR models, several analyses such as sensitivity analysis, error analysis, and uncertainty analysis were performed. The conducted analyses demonstrated that the ETR algorithm had a reasonable performance to simulate both horizontal and vertical sub-gouge soil deformations in the sand. The soil depth ratio (y/W) and the horizontal load factor (Lh/γs.W) had substantial significance to model the horizontal and vertical deformations in the present study. The presented results provided a good notion of modeling the ice-gouging problem through the ETR algorithm. The outcomes may facilitate proposing new solutions to estimate the sub-gouge soil deformations in the sandy seabed. The present work can also be used for the planning of expensive field, laboratory, and FE simulations and to reduce the expenditures on future studies.

algorithm, Artificial Intelligence, decision tree learning, deformation, displacement, dtr, etr 1, etr 4, etr algorithm, etr model, horizontal deformation, input parameter, interaction process, machine learning, Memorial University, Midstream Oil & Gas, ml model, neural network, regression, soil deformation, sub-gouge deformation, sub-gouge soil deformation, vertical deformation, vertical sub-gouge deformation, vertical sub-gouge soil deformation

SPE Disciplines:

Technology:

To prevent problems caused by welding deformation, preparation in the design stage is necessary. Countermeasures in the design stage are also the most cost-effective method. In this study, to give designers information on the welding deformations, a system to calculate and visualize the welding deformations is developed. The model to visualize the deformation is the stiffened plate common in the ship structure. To increase computational efficiency, theoretical solutions to calculate the deformations of plate and stiffener are used instead of numerical analysis. Also, to ensure accuracy, experiments to estimate bending moments causing the welding deformations are performed. A computer program written with Visual C++ is developed for interactive data input, calculation of welding deformations, and display of deformed shape. Designers can change the design in the early stage after checking the deformed shape with this system.

INTRODUCTION The deformation process of clay siltstone under loading is a cumulative process of energy. Therefore, in order to clarify the deformation process of clay siltstone in compression by plate- bearing test, it is advisable to employ the method of energy analysis. In this paper, the reversible and irreversible energy in the deformation process is calculated from stress-deformation curves. The relationship between the deformation and the time of application of load to clay siltstone is investigated. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Circular steel bearing plate is applied in testing, The plate has a thickness of 5 cm and a diameter of 32 cm, Its area is about 800 cm%, Three tests, that is, tests (a), (b) and (c), were conducted, In test (a), the deformation of rock is measured immediately after each class of load is applied to it, and then it is read off the scale in every three minutes, It is taken as a controlling standard that the difference between two successive readings in every three minutes is not beyond 1/100 mm, This is called the controlling method of deformation, Tests (b) and (c) are carried out by what is called the controlling method of time, But each is slightly different from the other, In test (b) its deformation is measured after ten minutes of loading and then the next class of load is appliea at once but in test (c) the interval is three minutes, It holds true both in loading and in unloading. At this point these three tests are the same, Tests (a) and (b) arc all single cycle of loading and unloading, while test (c) is multi cycle loading unloading, Other technological requirements and experement conditions, for instance, clean and flat rock surface, accuracy of installation of loading system, rating of measurement instruments and so on, are all the same. When testing is carried out, the natural water content in clay siltstone is 3.1%, testing cavern temperature is between 18.2 Ct and 20C, uniaxial compressive strength of clay siltstone is 211 kg/cm. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The stress-deformation curves of test(a), (b) and(c) are obtained by means of the plate-bearing test, as shown in Fig,1 ~ Fig,3,hencc corresponding moduli of elasticity and deformation, as shown in Table 1, In order to make a comparison between them, results in laboratory and normal test in situ in the same testing cavern, where the, area of the plate is 2000 cm, are shown in Table 2. From Table 2 it can be seen that even if the fissure is not developed in clay siltstone and it is more uniform rook, the range of variation of its deformation parameter is very evident as well, (Figure in full paper) The curve was obtained under a single process of loading and unloading as shown in Fig. 4. The reversible and irreversible energy in the deformation process is calculated by measuring areas in the stress-deformation diagram. Total deformation energy u,' applied to the rock mass by an external load is divided into two parts.

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