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New challenges are being faced in the EPC phase for the largest-scale LNG plant to be created in the Arctic. A joint venture consortium including JGC Corporation is engaged in carrying out the construction of a natural gas liquefaction and shipping plant consisting of 3 liquefaction process units (hereinafter called “train(s)”), each capable of processing 5.5 million tons per year. Due to the geographical and climatic restrictions involved, the method chosen for this work is to fabricate the constituent equipment for the plant elsewhere and transport it in the form of modules to the construction site. The key to the success of this venture is how the contractor has been able to deliver the large number of super-large modules to the project site safely. Our achievement in delivering all 156 modules without damage has served to open the Northern Sea Route and proven the feasibility of module transportation which is a new element in the shipping business. These developments are likely to prove beneficial to both the project and shipping markets.
The Arctic Region attracts attention from all over the world as the remaining frontier of resource development. However, there are several hurdles to overcome, and it is difficult to maintain economic validity. Therefore, there has been almost no development in the region. This paper introduces the modularization method for large-scale plant construction in the Arctic and the newly developed Northern Sea Route for module transportation for the Yamal LNG Project.
In addition, before LNG Carriers start transiting the Northern Sea Route, transportation of very large modules between Asian fabrication yards and the site located in the Arctic Region through the Northern Sea Route has been a major part of the challenges faced in the Project.
NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE ARCTIC REGION
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports in “the Circum- Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA)” compiled in 2008 that 90 billion barrels, 13% of the estimated unproven reserves of oil, and 1,670 trillion cf. corresponding to 30% of the estimated unproven reserves of natural gas might exist in the Arctic Region. Furthermore, it is said there might be 20% of the estimated amount of the worlds natural gas deposits in the Yamal peninsula. In Fig.1, the data from Oil & Capital Journal in 2012, show that the major oil companies have already obtained the development rights for the natural resources in the Arctic Region.
Abstract Objectives/Scope Building an effective team is never easy. Imagine doing it in five different places that have variety of cultures. Ichthys Project has four modular fabrication yards within Asia region that supports the construction of the LNG plant in Darwin, Australia. Using a ‘One Team’ for ‘One Goal’ approach, by supporting respectful communications, risk management and problem solving with each other and our counterparts, we achieved relationships which are based on ‘active mutual support’. Methods, Procedures, Process The Senior Leadership team constantly reinvigorate the ‘Commitment to Deliver’ with actions that require mitigation measures at all sites. The cooperation of each individual to work successfully in implementing these were requested and expected to be delivered as we aim to achieve our objectives. In nurturing and cultivating the Incident and Injury Free (IIF) philosophy, we start by ensuring our site induction, which highlights the personal experience of our IIF safety culture, is world-class in content and delivery. Results, Observations, Conclusions Our relentless efforts in promoting the IIF culture across the international waters had seen us record over 145 Million Man-hours without any fatality while keeping our Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR) at 1.04 which is well below the international average rate of 3.14. This is achieved through our focus on key challenges that see us managing expectations. Clear communication with our clients, subcontractors and each other, have led to a better understanding in achieving our outcomes. We also continue to break down barriers where they exist, by strengthening relationships across vertical flows of people, process and knowledge. The Environmental aspects associated with the seasonal weather that we deal with in Darwin and overseas, made it all more important for us to stay on track in keeping our people safe and working right first time. We believe by building on our strengths and our initiatives such as Right First Time (RFT) coupled with the HSES and IIF programs keep our environment, assets and people safe; and the comprehensive training programs which we offer would create a more vigilant workforce that would instil safety as a value while applying the correct Project knowledge and skills when performing tasks. Novel/Additive Information Ichthys Project is ranked among the most significant oil and gas projects in the world and an example of how challenges coming from the different countries’ policies, different nationalities and cultures including coping with the harsh weathers of the five different locations could be overcome by a united will of each person involved in building a culture of prevention as One Team.
In 1993, Richard D’Souza (Fellow), the principal author and his co-authors presented a landmark paper reviewing the Semisubmersible Floating Production System (FPS) technology at the SNAME centennial meeting in New York. (D’Souza et al., 1993a). The paper captured the twenty year progression of the FPS beginning with the Argyll field in the UK Sector of the North Sea in 80 meters of water that was converted from a semisubmersible Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) and began producing in 1975. During this period about twenty five FPSs were installed, primarily in the North Sea and Brazil. Most were converted from semisubmersible MODUs. The deepest was in 625 m, the largest displacing 45,000 mt and the maximum oil rate was 70,000 bopd.
Over forty FPSs have been installed since then, most of which are purpose built platforms. The technology has expanded to a maximum water depth of 2400 m, displacements exceeding 150,000 mt and production rates of 300,000 boepd. The inherent versatility and flexibility of the FPS to adapt to a wide range of water depths, payloads, metocean conditions and future expansion, has resulted in the FPS superseding the Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and the Spar platform as the most widely used floating production platform after the Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) platform. Its field development applications range from marginal reservoirs to giant deepwater oil and gas fields across the globe.
This paper, authored by Richard D’Souza with a new team of co-authors, is a sequel to the 1993 paper and is intended as a historical and technical archive of the evolution of the FPS technology in the ensuing twenty five years. It highlights the importance of the Naval Architect and Ocean Engineer whose role has evolved from a peripheral to a major player in the design, fabrication and installation of the FPS. This paper has two objectives. One is to inform Operators and Contractors engaged in developing deepwater fields by providing a historical overview of lessons learned and technology evolution of the FPS. The other is to inspire graduate and post graduate Naval Architects and Ocean Engineers to consider a career in the offshore industry where they will have an impactful role in shaping the future of deepwater floating production platforms.
Abstract In the history of FLNG development there were significant achievements recently, with symbolic events, namely the Petronas FLNG Satu started her LNG production in December 2016 in Malaysia and the Prelude FLNG having been sailed away to her destination in Australia in mid-2017. Since the concept of floating LNG was discussed by the industry in the 1990's, it has taken nearly three decades for the dream to come true through the resolution of technical and commercial challenges. The Petronas FLNG2 and the Eni Coral South FLNG will follow, to be delivered together with LNG carrier conversion solutions. The authors together with their colleagues have been deeply involved in all phases of the development programme, from concept selection, definition and execution in delivery of the majority of these projects. This paper captures our actual experience, challenges and lessons learned, and address our observations to facilitate further improvements and enhancements in project delivery, competitiveness, quality and safety.