The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Abstract Over the last few decades, tracers have provided crucial insights on fluid flow behavior assessing reservoir connectivity. For years, they had been viewed as mostly passive molecules that go with the flow of the injected fluid and uncover pathways between injectors and producers. The proposed paper sheds light on some interesting newer frontiers of tracer applications with unconventional uses to gain further flow insight from an oil and gas reservoir. Although primarily developed for interwell applications, newer and more sophisticated genres of tracers have found their way to assist with well fluid flow behavior. Inflow tracer applications, used for phase flow diagnostics, have been around for a few decades now. However, with several parameters like physical space restrictions, temperature, solid support selection, multi-phase flow, initial surge and target concentrations at play, it was soon realised that an extended lifetime was needed to provide techno-economic benefits during reservoir monitoring. Microencapsulation of tracer molecules is one of the newer developed techniques that has shown significant extension to tracer life in controlled release tracer applications as well as improved dispersibility within fracking fluid. Newer synthesis mechanisms like microencapsulation have been developed to linearize inflow tracer release profiles that has led to a substantial increase in tracer lifetime. As the research and development progressed, newer tracers such as frac bead tracers were developed allowing long term fluid flowback monitoring in fracture stimulated wells. In parallel, it is still an active field of investigation as to how tracers can be integrated with common downhole completion and topside equipment of a well to accurately detect early water breakthrough. The paper discusses the advances in these target areas where chemistry is constantly being upgraded to suit end user needs. Novel applications and ‘out-of-the-box’ uses have been developed in the last couple of years where inflow tracers have found a modified use within the gas lift system in a well and integrated with the top-side flow arm of the well, eradicating the need for individual sampling of wells and detection of water breakthrough at an early onset, thus aiding timely decision making and improved recovery from the well. Real time analysis of tracers have attracted attention for quite some time now. The paper also discusses the latest development in this area and the challenges associated with real field applications. While advancements in versatility of the tracer molecules have been published prior in literature, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no work has been published to date that discusses the latest advances in unconventional uses of the tracer molecules aiding EOR and IOR processes.
Roy, Pratanu (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Walsh, Stuart D. C. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Du Frane, Wyatt L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Vericella, John J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Smith, William L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Stolaroff, Joshuah K. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Smith, Megan M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Duoss, Eric B. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Bourcier, William L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Carroll, Susan (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Roberts, Jeffery J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA) | Aines, Roger D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA)
Abstract Double-emulsion microfluidic techniques can produce small spherical capsules, hundreds of microns or less in diameter, capable of containing a wide variety of materials. By carefully selecting the outer shell material, microcapsules can be created that release their contents (i.e., are "triggered") under specific thermal or chemical conditions. As such, microcapsules provide an extremely versatile delivery mechanism for transporting target materials for tracer, proppant, or stimulation applications into natural and man-made fracture systems. Moreover, the capsules can be engineered to have densities above, below or even close to neutrally buoyant with the carrier fluid, thereby enabling their transport properties to be tailored for a given task. Design of microencapsulated particles for specific applications requires accurate models describing their subsurface transport. A principal application for such micro-encapsulated particles is as a substitute for, or as an additive to, traditional fracture proppant. However, the distances that even such traditional proppants are able to penetrate into natural rock systems is poorly understood, in part due to the uncertainties surrounding the methods used to model their transport. In this work, we present ongoing research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory into both the fabrication of double-emulsion microcapsules for energy applications, and the transport properties of these particles. We discuss different triggering mechanisms and materials for the capsules, and their potential applications. The transport behavior of the capsules close to the neutrally buoyant limit is also described, through experiments and numerical simulations to test settling rates and the role of particle-particle interactions on capsule transport in fractures. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-PROC-668998.
Samantray, Ajay (Al Yasat Petroleum) | Kaiping, Cai (Al Yasat Petroleum) | Al Neyadi, Thani (Al Yasat Petroleum) | Almazrouei, Sultan (Al Yasat Petroleum) | Al Marzouqi, Mohamed (ADNOC) | Alshmakhy, Ahmed (ADNOC) | Al Hammadi, Yousif (ADNOC) | Al Hosani, Fahad (ADNOC) | Al Dhanhani, Helal (ADNOC) | Chitre, Sunil (ADNOC) | Tippit, Justin (Tracerco) | Chatterjee, Monalisa (Tracerco) | Ford, Phil (Tracerco)
Abstract The paper discusses conceptualization, design and implementation of the first ever inflow tracer technology application in UAE carried out in an Abu Dhabi offshore field. Working in offshore environment has challenges related to operations, cost, resource requirements and HSE that requires innovative and cost-effective solutions to improve efficiency. In recent years, controlled release smart tracers have carved out a niche as a proven solution for extended life fluid flow monitoring, thus allowing the engineers and geoscientists to better understand fluid inflow patterns in a well leading to informed decisions on reservoir management and production optimization. Smart tracers have the capability to detect, quantify and monitor phase breakthroughs and understand subsequent influx behavior in the well. Being a pioneer project, critical focus was placed on design, execution, and cost optimization. Smart tracer technology was chosen over conventional production logging as it provided production profile monitoring over time compared to single time measurement when using production logging, substantially lower operating cost as well as no production intervention. A flowback calculation was used inputting static and dynamic reservoir data to understand the flow dynamics that the tracers would encounter. Reservoir permeability profiles, image logs and hole rugosity were utilized to identify potential areas of influx along the wellbore and strategically place specially designed smart oil and water tracers along the ~3300 feet long lateral. Strictly adhering to local environmental regulations, a thorough offshore job hazard analysis was carried out and a risk matrix was framed. A specialized first of a kind closed loop customized sampling procedure was invented to de-risk a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) hazard present during sampling operations. The paper describes the initial results for the first well in the campaign. Sampling strategy consisted of two phases: high-frequency immediately after well commissioning followed by steady state sampling. Samples were collected at the wellhead and analyzed for tracer breakthroughs. Results showed a good calibration with conventional production logging, confirmed well clean-up and yielded crucial information on zonal flow contribution. Utilizing a local cost model, smart tracer technology was found to offer typical cost savings in the order of US$10 million for a ten well program over five years as compared to conventional production logging. The paper offers insights into the first application of controlled release tracers in offshore Abu Dhabi highlighting the best practices in project design, techno-economics, hazard analysis and operational excellence. The success of the project is the first major step towards embracing this advanced technology for reservoir monitoring and surveillance. This opens opportunities for similar applications elsewhere with significant potential to incentivize life-cycle cost of reservoir management and improve hydrocarbon recovery.
Abstract Tracer technology is an efficient and effective monitoring and surveillance tool with many useful applications in the oil and gas industry. Some of these applications include improving reservoir characterization, waterflood optimization, remaining oil saturation (Sor) determination, fluid pathways, and connectivity between wells. Tracer surveys can be deployed inter-well between an injector and offset producer(s) or as push-and-pull studies in a single well. Tracers can be classified several ways. (a) Based on their functionality: partitioning and passive tracers. Partitioning tracers interact with the reservoir and thus propagate slower than passive tracers do. The time lag between the two types can be used to estimate Sor, to ultimately assess and optimize EOR operations. (b) Based on their carrying fluid: water and gas tracers. These can be used in IOR or EOR operations. All gas tracers are partitioning tracers and the most common are perfluorocarbons; they are thermally stable, environmentally friendly, have high detectability and low natural occurrence in the reservoir. On the other hand, water tracers are passive tracers and the most commonly used ones are fluorinated acids. (c) Based on radioactivity: radioactive and non-radioactive tracers. Selecting a tracer to deploy in the field depends on a number of factors including their solubility, fluid compatibility, background concentration, stability, detectability, cost, and environmental impact. This paper provides an overview of various tracer applications in the oil and gas industry. These will include the single-well tracer test (SWCT), inter-well tracer test (IWTT), nano tracers, gas tracers and radioactive tracers. Their use will be highlighted in different scenarios. Field case studies will be reviewed for all types of tracers. Lessons learnt for all the applications, including what works and what does not work, will be shared. Specific cases and examples will include the optimization of waterflood operations, remaining oil saturation determination, flow paths and connectivity between wells, and IOR/EOR applications. The current state-of-the-art will be presented and novel emerging methods will be highlighted. This paper will showcase how the tracer technology has evolved over the years and how it shows great potential as a reservoir monitoring and surveillance tool.
Abstract The initial development of inflow tracers was initially designed to provide qualitative information about identifying the location of water breakthrough in production wells. The proof of concept and application for water detection, initiated the development of oil tracers for oil inflow monitoring. Different approaches to install them permanently within a completion component were used, to provide risk free, reliable production monitoring without the need for intervention. Installing unique chemical tracers that are embedded in polymer materials in sand screens or pup joints, along select locations in the lower completion was to correlate where the oil and water is flowing along the production interval and how much. Innovation in the chemistry and materials designed to release to a target fluid (oil or water), enabled non electric wireless monitoring capabilities for many years of longevity in harsh well conditions, such as high temperature and highly acidic stimulation fluids. The evolution of inflow tracer signal interpretation, qualitative and quantitative interpretation workflows using models have also provided valuable insight to inflow characterisation. The latter can provide zonal rate information like wireline conveyed production logging tools, by inducing transients through shut in's or rate changes to create tracer signals that are transported by flow to surface and captured in sample bottles for laboratory analysis. A model based approach to match the measured signals with proprietary models through history matching workflow has also been developed. There are hundreds of well installations utilising inflow tracing monitoring technology today, where the majority have been in open hole completions in both sandstone and naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs on land, offshore environments in both platform and deep water sub-sea environments producing through long tie backs to FPSO's. The monitoring sensors are adaptable to most completion types in conventional and unconventional reservoirs. In most cases, inflow tracers can monitor clean-up efficiency, any subsequent restart and steady state production. Practical case studies will discuss the development of robust and reliable inflow tracer and technology and how operators have applied it over the past decade in a chronological order.