|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
ABSTRACT The purposes of this paper are: 1, to discuss some of the economic aspects of income related to producing-equipment costs of several types of commonly applied low-temperature separation process flow schemes; 2, to discuss general trends showing justification of equipment to recover part or all of the flash vapors associated with these low-temperature processes; and 3, to provide data from which preliminary economic estimates may be made in determining feasibility of low-temperature processing of high-pressure, high gas-oil ratio well streams and recovery of vapors associated with these systems. INTRODUCTION Producing high-pressure, high gas-oil ratio gas distillate well streams for maximum return per dollar invested is probably more important now than it has ever been in the history of the industry. Reasons for this , of course, are inflationary cost trends of equipment and labor coupled with stringent and Increasing legislative controls covering gas markets and prices Where pressures and reserves are favorable, processing of this type well stream by auto-refrigeration accompanying pressure reduction is being applied more generally than ever before Until recently, it was usually conceded that in the 5 bbl per million and less category additional liquid recovery to be realized via the low-temperature route was not justified because of the greater investment for this type of equipment as compared to the line heater, scrubber, glycol-dehydrator combination . Of the many factors affecting justification of this type equipment on marginal well streams, one of the most important can be recovery or partla1 recovery and sale of flash vapors that would otherwise be vented to atmosphere and lost EXTENT OF THE DISCUSSION Briefly stated and as we are most familiar with it, the field-applied low-temperature unit utilizes the Joule- Thompson effect in expanding a well stream at high pressure to achieve low separation temperatures. The high-pressure well stream is pre-cooled with the cold sales gas to achieve even colder separation temperatures and subsequent increased condensation of oil and water present oil the vapor phase Gas-saturated oil produced In the process is either stabilized or stage-separated prior to being sent to storage. A portion of the flash gas from the stabilization unitor stage separator may be used as pump power or fuel The remainder is either flared or recompressed to sales- gas pressure. Whatever is done with this residue tail gas involves an economic study of the factors involved, since , if flared, a direct loss in well-stream income results. or, if recompressed, the costs of operation and maintenance and initial investment of the compressor installation must be justified by the additional return realized. It is the conservation of these vapors and the reduction of vapor-compression costs by various process techniques that is dealt with in this discussion Six well streams of varying degrees of richness in recoverable stock-tank oil were studied in SIX separate process schemes. Liquid recovery, sales gas recovery cost of recompressing excess low-pressure gas, and the initial cost of these paints for various flow rates were computed
Abstract To manage the integrity of assets operating beyond their design life proactive corrosion management is essential. Traditionally topsides process plant, subsea pipelines and onshore terminals have been subjected to individual corrosion management schemes. An holistic approach that brings the corrosion management of these individual components into an integrated Corrosion Management System (CMS) has been developed for a variety of ageing offshore assets. The CMS comprises a Corrosion Control Scheme (CCS), a Topsides Risk Based Inspection (RBI) scheme, a Corrosion Risk Assessment (CRA) and a Pipeline Risk Assessment (PRA). The objectives of this integrated CMS process are to: Proactively identify all corrosion threats and define related risk Define mitigation controls as necessary and ensure implementation Ensure mitigation controls are effective Establish and implement corrective action as necessary The overall corrosion management strategy is implemented by the CCS for a specific production asset which identifies the corrosion threats. It establishes the control and mitigation procedures required to mitigate internal and external corrosion on topsides process plant, subsea pipelines and related subsea components. The degradation mechanisms, controls and mitigation procedures are mirrored in the other CMS components. The future inspection programme for topsides process plant is driven by the RBI, whilst the CRA and PRA drive the future inspection and monitoring regimes for subsea pipelines. Results from these components are fed back into any review and upgrade of the CCS. A CMS has been developed and implemented that meets the following objectives: A transparent and auditable decision making process Proactively identifies corrosion threats and defines related tasks Defines mitigation controls as necessary and manages implementation Ensures mitigation controls are effective Defines inspection and monitoring regimes to assess asset condition Establishes and implements corrective actions as necessary An integrated scheme such that changes in one component are mirrored in the others.
Hydrocarbon transfer pipelines that passing/traversing across protected areas have always the risk of sudden failure due to unseen internal corrosion causing damage to the surrounding environment. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain the integrity of hydrocarbon transfer pipelines especially, aged pipelines in order to minimize the risk of its failures, avoid oil spill, protect the environment from pollutants and achieve a proactive pipeline failure control. This paper presents a pipeline risk assessment program that was designed to manage corrosion, control pipeline's failures and to assure a renovated pipeline system. This program includes practical techniques to 1) refurbish a doubtful pipeline, 2) determine exact condition & remaining life of a pipeline and 3) to make active pipeline maintenance. This technique is successfully implemented in GUPCO Oil Company and proved its capability to be a powerful tool to evaluate & maintain the overall integrity/strength of GUPCO pipeline's systems. It is simple now for pipeline operators to identify areas of greatest impact to the environment & safety and to respond with the necessary course of actions to remedy the deficiencies. Thus, they succeeded in maximizing economic returns for pipelines-owners, protecting the safety of employees/community, minimizing risk to the environment and finally complying with the laws and regulations of Egypt.
This article is a synopsis of paper OTC 11869, "Commissioning, Startup, and Early Operation of the Gemini Development," by J.A. Holbrook, Texaco Worldwide E&P; L.A. Golson, SPE, Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., originally presented at the 2000 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 1-4 May.