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Almohammad, Humoud (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Derbass, Abdullah (Kuwait Oil Company) | Alsubaie, Abdulaziz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Bumajdad, Mohammed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Khamis, Abdulaziz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Alshammari, Abdullah (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Tameemi, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company)
Abstract An offshore gas field located in a cold area; with an average temperature of 13 Celsius degree and −1.2 Celsius degree under sea level. The reservoir is located 200 meters under the sea floor, where the sea floor is 850-1100 meter depth and 120 Km away from shore. The objective is to develop an offshore production system for the gas field and maintain the necessary production, taking into account flow assurance, economics, and environmental effect. The required design includes reservoir pressure forecasting, completion design, drilling strategy, and production flowline network modeling. The first step was forecasting the reservoir pressure by trial and error equation, then completion design to calculate the possible production increment from every well and calculate the cumulative produced volume to predict the changes in the fluid composition. The drilling strategy and completion design were carried out under the following assumptions: wells are having same completion design, production rate, and static reservoir pressure. The production network simulated with the designed completions using a steady-state multiphase flow simulator, with the sub-sea template and manifold strategy. For the flowline network, polyurethane coat was used for each pipe to reduce the heat transfer from the sea water to the flowing fluids. The back-pressure equation was used to develop the IPR model and flash separation to predict the gas composition changes assuming the reservoir is an isothermal system. The base year started with eight wells, to achieve the required production per year, 70 MMSCM per day. Erosional velocity ratio kept under 1 for the designed 16 years. Pipelines coating was required to prevent flowline damage and deal the forming hydrates. A total of 30 wells to be drilled to cover the production needed for each year. An offshore gas field study is explained in details with the simulation design procedure and pre-planning strategy for harsh cold environment flow assurance concerns and production difficulties. In addition to helpful estimation equations.
Abstract Many aspects of the design and operability of a system to gather and conveyunprocessed hydrocarbons depend on the output from thermo-hydraulic modeling—todefine the physical system, to guide the assessment and reduction of risk, andto establish the operating constraints within which the system can be safelyand reliably operated. Thermo-hydraulic modeling is typically undertaken usingcommercially available and widely used software tools for steady state andtransient modeling. These tools reflect a significant Research and Developmentinvestment by the industry over 20 years. Uncertainties in the accuracy of the results still remain, particularly asparameters are used outside of the range for which validation has beenundertaken. It is also vital to note that the validity of the results alsodepends on the competency and skill of the user to define a range ofappropriate cases, to interpret the results with due regard for the capabilityand limitations of the tools, and to communicate those results to relateddisciplines. Introduction For many aspects of engineering there are well-established industry codes andstandards. Operators may define the requirements for the way their engineeringis to be conducted by reference to these documents. However, there is a lack ofsuch standards in the area of flow assurance, the discipline encompassingmultiphase flow and aspects of production chemistry in the transportation ofunprocessed reservoir fluids. The purpose of this paper is to describe key parts of the requirements in thearea of modeling multiphase flow, and to illustrate, through examples, areaswhere the modeling process may need to be improved. The Value of Reliable Modeling A significant contribution to the success of the oil industry in recent decadeshas been derived from the increased use of multiphase flow transportationsystems, typically to gather production from remote wellhead locations into acentral processing facility. In the case of several currently operatingmulti-field deep-water developments the projects would not have been economicon the basis of having processing facilities over each reservoir, and the useof multiphase gathering systems is therefore a key enabler. The answers which are derived from modeling the multiphase flow through suchsystems therefore matter both at the level of individual design decisions andalso, potentially, at the level of justifying the viability of a majordevelopment. Multiphase flow is complex - typically three ‘phases’ (gas, oil and water)flowing together in the production system which itself will typically includepipelines with changes in orientation (uphill, downhill, and horizontalsections, luted sections at spools, risers), and subject to an overall declinein pressure with length and typically a reduction in temperature with length. The changes in pressure and temperature cause the phase properties (density, viscosity) to change, and the relative quantities of the phases to change asgas expands and liquid evaporates or condenses.
OTC 24250 Today's Top 30 Flow Assurance Technologies: Where Do They Stand? Copyright 2013, Offshore Technology Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 6-9 May 2013. This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology Conference, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Offshore Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied.
Abstract The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the evolution of the flow assurance discipline over the years as it applies to the design of gathering and export pipeline systems. In the early days, pipeline design was essentially a job for one engineer when pipelines were on land or in shallow water, not in a new geological province, flowing temperatures / pressures were not abnormal, and had no multi-phase flow or contaminants. This paper will identify events or circumstances that affected how "~Pipeline Hydraulics" were designed. Flow Assurance Engineering has evolved from two fundamental pillars – thermo-hydraulic analysis of fluid flow in production systems, and production chemistry. Today, flow assurance engineers in a project not only provide predictions, but also prevention strategies, and remediation methods for: Fluid characteristics Flow hydraulics and thermal behaviors Performance of the production system Guidance of operation strategies Identification and management of solid deposition issues: hydrates paraffins (waxes) asphaltenes scales, etc. They interface with multiple disciplines involved with the project, including subsurface, pipeline and risers, subsea hardware, topsides process facilities, chemical vendors, the fluid laboratory, etc. Beginning in the late 1940s, pipelines began transporting hydrocarbons over long distances onshore (conversion of the Big Inch Crude and Little Inch product pipelines to natural gas service for example) when unforeseen flow problems began to occur. Exploration gradually moved to nearshore drilling, and finally, to shallow water. Additional flow problems increased in complexity and magnitude. To track how these increasingly complex flow problems affected pipeline design, this paper presents: The evolution of Flow Assurance from simple hydraulics calculations to a well-defined engineering discipline The critical responsibilities in current deepwater development - Greenfield and Brownfield projects The re-shaping of Flow Assurance Engineering by digital revolution and big data technologies The evolution of the discipline applying new technologies to unlock new reserves with longer, deeper tiebacks