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Copyright 2012, Carbon Management Technology Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the Carbon Management Technology Conference held in Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-9 February 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by a CMTC program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Carbon Management Technology Conference, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Carbon Management Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of CMTC copyright. Abstract Allergan has developed over several five year plan iterations methods for accounting, compiling and reporting carbon emissions. In this article, I will demonstrate these methods along with how Allergan achieves acceptance and how Allergan has performed over this period. Results will also be presented to demonstrate why this is a worthwhile effort for Allergan to undertake.
Al Gore's book "An Inconvenient Truth" awakened us to how our life styles and our business practices are impacting our world; accelerating pace of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, toxic chemicals in our water & food supplies, climate changes (floods & droughts), limited access to resources. We are now requiring a personal and professional environmental accountability for our actions. The process of manufacturing, distribution, and disposal of or recycling of products is going green, but green jobs are not necessarily safe jobs. These changes provide opportunities for the safety professional in the areas of: the health and safety, product safety, and environmental protection.
Abstract TOTAL is strongly committed in reducing the flaring and improving the energy efficiency of its exploration and production (E&P) operations: commitment of no continuous production flaring in new projects since year 2000, joining GGFR in 2004, strong objective of flaring reduction (after having achieved a 40% flaring reduction from 1998 to 2005 while the production increased significantly), as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) and energy efficiency internal targets. The reduction of continuous flaring is the aim of several projects under studies even when there is no gas market. Furthermore, Energy Assessments have been conducted on E&P sites representing about half of TOTAL E&P's fuel gas consumption, to detect opportunities to optimize the energy efficiency and define action plans for the implementation of these opportunities. In addition to this, the company has developed a guidebook gathering all known technical best practices, leading to GHG emissions reduction. This publication gives highlights from this guidebook, in particular practices to quantify, categorise and actually reduce the flaring and venting, as well as practices to evaluate energy efficiency and optimize it. Examples are given from actual gains obtained by applying those practices. In parallel to these efforts on existing facilities, actions are also applied to the new projects: Environmental General Specifications have been recently updated in order to reflect the best available technologies and optimum design practices. The paper highlights these specifications, with examples of what is considered in Total as mandatory or recommended for new projects design, to minimize emissions of GHG, and to increase energy efficiency. Finally, the GHG and energy efficiency assessment which is performed for new projects, during the conceptual or pre-project studies, which is another tool to encourage the use of Best Available Technologies, is described.
This reference is for an abstract only. A full paper was not submitted for this conference. Abstract Total has been strongly involved in GHG emissions reduction since several years, initially focusing on flaring reduction: all new projects since 2000 are designed with no continuous flaring and more globally, flaring will be reduced by 50% from 2004 to 2012. Second step of emissions reduction is to focus on combustion: consumptions will exceed wasted energy (flares, vent, losses) in the next years as a result of actions taken to cut by half gas flaring on one hand and evolving characteristics of assets portfolio: mature fields, LNG, extra heavy oils on the other. As part of the whole picture of Total involvement against climate change, the need to reduce energy consumption, mainly fuel gas, has led Total E&P to set up an energy efficiency action plan for affiliates and new projects. Energy efficiency assessment methodology developed with a specialized contractor is described, with a focus on 2007 pilots: Anguille field in Gabon (mature oil field under redevelopment with flaring reduction aspect) and Elgin (North Sea gas field under European legislation) in UK. Energy assessments deployment over major Total EP affiliates in 2008 is presented. The paper will show how these assessments aim at drawing a base line, defining and implementing energy efficiency plans in affiliates through listed and ranked efficiency enhancement opportunities, also at defining best practices at corporate level, and thus proposing in the near future quantified objectives of improvement. Energy efficiency assessment of affiliates not only leads to savings in energy consumptions, and reduction of emissions but also provide business opportunities through better products monetization. And in parallel to improvements on existing operations, a best in class design on new developments will ensure a global improvement of energy use in a near future.
The cement industry is one of the largest producers of CO2 in the world. The widespread and common use of concrete as a building material has allowed for continued growth of the cement industry. Worldwide cement production is expected to almost double by 2050. This paper explains some of the basics of the global cement industry providing data on where cement is made today and in the future. The paper also provides an explanation of the sources of CO2 emissions in cement manufacture.
The paper explores the International Energy Agency's (IEA) "cement technology roadmap?? for CO2 emissions reductions in the cement industry. This roadmap was developed under the guidance of World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the Cement Sustainability Initiative. It calls for roughly a two-fold reduction in specific CO2 emissions per ton of cement produced. Each of the three traditional levers for the industry; energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and clinker substitution will be explained. The limits for each lever will be identified, thus identifying the gap that will exist after current known levers are exhausted.
As a main conclusion, we can say that given the magnitude of the challenge ahead, even with the sectorial approach promoted by the IEA, the cement industry will likely have to rely heavily on carbon capture and storage to meet the CO2 reduction targets. This would imply very high operating and capital costs for the industry and mandates further innovation. Lafarge's AetherTM cement is one such example with a CO2 footprint reduced by up to 30%.