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Abstract This paper details the lessons learned in late 2007 and early 2008 whilst air drilling vertical gas wells in the Travis Peak formation of the western East Texas deep Bossier play in Amoroso Field and applying the lessons learned in the US to a deep appraisal well drilled in Northern China. The deep Bossier represents one of the most active onshore plays in the United States. Deep Bossier wells are 14,000 ft (4,267m) to 16,000 ft (4,876m) deep and intersect shale and sandstone formations ranging between 2,000 ft (610m) and 3,000 ft (914m) thick. The Travis Peak is also known as ‘tragic peak’ during conventional drilling operations because the sandstone is hard and abrasive in nature, leading to extreme low rate of penetration (ROP). Air Drilling technology was utilized to increase the ROP through the formation at depths of 10,000 ft (3,047m) and greater. The deep exploration wells in the Daqing area of Northern China are drilled to depths of 20,000ft (6,095m) and greater in an attempt to explore the deep volcanic reservoir potential in the area. In the US the 8-1/2-in hole size was drilled using air hammers and roller cone bits using straight air or nitrogen. Temperatures in the Travis Peal formation were reported to be above 300°F (148°C). Temperatures in Northern China were reported to be as high as 400°F (204°C) in the 12-1/4-in hole size. The fit-for-purpose equipment needed for the air drilling sections of these wells comprised of air hammers capable of drilling in high temperatures, hammer bits with full diamond inserts, high-temperature float valves, air compressors, nitrogen production units, mist injection systems, and rotating control diverters. The lessons learned in the US were applied to the well in China where similar results were encountered. The drive to enhance air drilling to extreme depths and high temperatures previously believed to be off limits proved to be successful in both parts of the world.
Because underbalanced drilling creates a natural tendency for fluid to flow from the formation into the borehole, successful underbalanced drilling depends on appropriate selection of circulating fluid. Under these conditions, use of conventional mud systems often results in lost circulation, formation damage, high mud costs and a need for expensive completions. Use of compressible fluids, on the other hand, can inhibit or eliminate many of the problems associated with drilling in environments in which formation damage is likely.
Use of a compressible fluid in the circulating system, referred to as air drilling, lowers the downhole fluid pressure, allowing drilling into formations where loss of circulation and damage to productive formations are problems of major concern.
Other advantages to air drilling include increased penetration rates, improved drill bit performance, and contamination-free drill solids for ready detection of hydrocarbons.
Reduced pressure air drilling techniques include not only gas continuous phase methods and use of dry gas and gas mist, but also gas internal systems with stable foams and aerated fluids.
This discussion of problems related to underbalanced drilling addresses types of drilling equipment used, and provides an overview of experience gained from both successful and unsuccessful wells.
The concept of using compressible fluids (i. e., gases) as a drilling media to remove cuttings from a drilled hole was first recorded in a United States patent issued in 1866. Since then science and technology have transformed this idea into a sophisticated industry of specialized drilling techniques.
Reduced pressure drilling techniques involve using compressed gas, (most commonly, atmospheric air), as the circulating fluid. Depending on specific drilling conditions, this gas may be used alone, or in conjunction with water and other additives.
The use of air or gas as a circulating medium was introduced in the early 1950's. Even though initial attempts were crude, significant increases in penetration rate and bit life were obtained. Since these initial attempts, development of air and gas drilling techniques have expanded and are widely accepted today as a method to reduce drilling times and cut cost of many wells. Along with the time and resultant dollar savings, other advantages such as immediate and continuous hydrocarbon detection, minimum damage to liquid sensitive pay zones, better control of lost circulation, and cleaner cores are obtained.
Today's air drilling technology is attributed to many drilling people whose initiative and accumulative experience have refined the method and determined situations where the technique is most applicable. The lack of understanding, rather than experience, is often the reason for not accepting air drilling. Drilling with air does involve special consideration in the use of equipment and drilling techniques that are not commonly encountered with other drilling media. For example, air, unlike fluids, compresses readily and requires a somewhat more sophisticated engineering approach to achieve the desired results.
This paper discusses the mechanics of air drilling, modifications such as mist or foam drilling, unique equipment requirements, and downhole problems that have been encountered. Special attention is given to presenting techniques developed to prevent or control downhole problems.
Mechanics of Air Drilling
Air is the ultimate low density drilling media. In order to achieve optimum results and greatest economy from air drilling, there are several factors which should be considered. Hard formations which are dry or produce relatively few formation liquids provide the best results while air drilling. When the formation is completely dry, or the influx of liquids is slight enough to be absorbed in the air stream, the drill cuttings return to the surface in the form of dust. Also, this allows for immediate and continuous evaluation of hydrocarbons.
Abstract This paper details the modifications performed and knowledge gained in late 2007 and early 2008 while drilling three underbalanced (UB) vertical gas wells in the Travis Peak formation of the western east Texas deep Bossier play in the Amoroso field, using jointed pipe. The deep Bossier represents one of the most active onshore plays in the United States. The Travis Peak is also known as ‘tragic peak’ during conventional drilling operations because the sandstone formation is hard and abrasive in nature, leading to an extreme low rate of penetration (ROP). Performance UB drilling (UBD) technology was used to increase the ROP through the formation at depths of 9,800 ft (2,987 m) and greater. The surface and the intermediate casing intervals were drilled conventionally. The next section (8 1/2-in. hole size, using hammer and tricone bits) was drilled using UBD techniques that used straight air or membrane nitrogen (N2). The injection rates for compressed air or membrane generated N2 ranged from 2,800 to 3,400 scfm, and the liquid rates during mist-foam drilling were 14 to 16 gpm (53 to 61 lpm). The section in the first well was drilled with three hammer bits and one tricone bit with an average ROP (including connection times) of 42 fph (13 m/h). Instantaneous ROP in the range of 350 fph (107 m/h) was observed with the hammer bits. A total of 2,378 ft (725 m) in 55.5 hr was drilled UB. During the entire UB phase, penetration rates were significantly greater than the offset records. The operator carried forward the lessons learned from the first well into the second well. A total of 2,750 ft (838 m) in 58.75 hr (using three hammer bits and one tricone bit) was achieved. Based on the second well's success, planning was initiated for the third well with additional improvements in bit design proposed. Enhanced hammer bit design, however, did not yield promising results; the decision was made to drill the section with tricone bits. A total of 3,010 ft (917 m) in 61.7 hr was drilled UB using four hammer bits and three tricone bits. Improved ROP and overall cost savings were the primary objectives for the client and were achieved. For the rig crew, drilling with compressed air or N2 was a new experience. Rig training was conducted before the drilling phase by the service company personnel. Introduction Conventional drilling techniques in hard-rock areas tend to be slow and are more expensive with increasing daily rig rates. The Travis Peak formation is located on the westernflank of Robertson County, Texas, USA. The deep Bossier represents one of the most active onshore gas plays and has been assessed as one of the United States' largest gas fields, with estimated reserves of 4 Tcf of gas. UBD technology was used to increase the ROP at depths of 9,800 ft (2,987 m) and greater. Geology The Travis Peak formation is the basal formation of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group, which overlies the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group. The complete stratigraphic sequence is presented in Fig. 1. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak formation is approximately 3,000 ft (914 m) thick. In northeastern Texas, Travis Peak sandstones have complex diagenetic history involving (1) mechanical compaction, (2) precipitation of cements and authigenic minerals including dolomite, quartz, illite chlorite, and ankerite, (3) generation of secondary porosity through dissolution of feldspar, and (4) formation of reservoir bitumen. This history resulted in extremely hard and abrasive formations that are very difficult to drill. Porosity ranges from 8 to 11%, while average permeabilities and median permeabilities are less than 0.1 mD as a result of compaction, extensive precipitation of authigenic minerals, and minor pressure solution.