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AlAbbad, Mohammed A. (Saudi Aramco) | Sanni, Modiu L. (Saudi Aramco) | Kokal, Sunil (Saudi Aramco) | Krivokapic, Alexander (Institutt for Energiteknikk) | Dye, Christian (Institutt for Energiteknikk) | Dugstad, Øyvind (Restrack) | Hartvig, Sven K. (Restrack) | Huseby, Olaf K. (Restrack)
Summary The single-well chemical-tracer test (SWCTT) is an in-situ test to measure oil saturation, and has been used extensively to assess the potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or to qualify particular EOR chemicals and methods. An SWCTT requires that a primary tracer be injected and that a secondary tracer be generated from the primary tracer in situ. Typically, a few hundred liters of ester is injected as primary tracer, and the secondary tracer is formed through hydrolysis in the formations. The ester is an oil/water-partitioning tracer, whereas the in-situ-generated alcohol is a water tracer. During production, these tracers separate and the time lag of the ester vs. the alcohol is used to estimate oil saturation in the near-well region. In this paper, we report a field test of a class of new reacting tracers for SWCTTs. In the test, approximately 100 cm of each of the new tracers was injected and used to assess oil saturation. In the test, ethyl acetate (EtAc) was used as a benchmark to verify the new tracers. This paper reviews the design and implementation of the test, highlights operational issues, provides a summary of the analyzed tracer curves, and gives a summary of the interpretation methodology used to find oil saturations from the tracer curves. Briefly summarized, we find the Sor measured by each of the novel tracers to compare with that from a conventional SWCTT. To validate stability and detectability of the tracers, a mass-balance assessment for the new tracers is compared with that of the conventional tracers. A benefit of the new tracers is the small amount needed. Methodological advantages resulting from using small amounts include the possibility to inject a mix of several tracers. Using several tracers with different partitioning coefficients enables probing of different depths of the reservoir. In addition, the robustness of SWCTTs can be increased by using several tracers, with different reaction rates and temperature sensitivity. The field trial also demonstrated that the new tracers have operational advantages. One benefit is the possibility to inject the new tracers as a short pulse of 10 minutes. Other benefits are that the small amounts needed reduce operational hazards and ease logistical handling.
The objective of this paper is to describe the first application of three unique chemical tracer technologies in the optimization process of a field development in the Black Sea offshore Romania. These technologies helped in the understanding of fluid flow, fracture effectiveness, and completion design. The paper describes the methodology employed and the results obtained from the combined application of water tracers, oil tracers, and gas tracers in one multistage hydraulically fractured well. Additionally, the tracer design, operational logistics, operational lessons learned, results interpretation, and application of the results in order to improve subsequent completions will also be discussed. Clear correlations were seen between the results of all three tracers, which were in turn compared to production and treatment data, further confirming the value of diagnostic technology. The importance of adequate sampling and offshore operational limitations were identified and resolved. Results from a planned, but due to tracer results, not executed water shutoff of high watercut zones are presented. The results were applied to future completion designs and decision-making processes. This case study is an inside look at the first-ever combined application of oil, water, and gas tracers in an offshore hydraulically fractured well development in Europe. It will discuss how the results from using all three chemical tracer technologies, coupled with additional data sets while applying a synergistic interaction between teams, can be highly leveraged to understand current completions designs and optimize future developments.
The applications of tracers can be tied to most disciplines in the oilfield; from drilling to secondary and tertiary recovery. The focus of this paper is in the application of chemical tracers to completion diagnostics and optimization, and in particular, to multistage fracturing operations offshore.
In the multistage fracturing application of tracer technology, there are mainly three sub-categories of chemical tracers: tracers for the gas phase of hydrocarbons, the liquid phases of hydrocarbons, and tracers for the water-based completion fluids. The presented project utilized all three tracer types at the same time.
Abstract The success of any improved oil recovery (IOR) project is largely dependent on how much oil is remaining to be mobilized within the targeted area of the partially depleted or mature reservoir. Partitioning tracers are generally used to measure residual oil saturation (Sor) or remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the near wellbore region via a single well chemical tracer test (SWCTT) or in an inter-well region via a partitioning inter-well tracer test (PITT). There is a limited repertoire of nonradioactive and environmentally friendly inter-well partitioning tracers for measuring ROS. A new class of environmentally friendly partitioning tracers was field tested, in a giant carbonate reservoir undergoing peripheral waterflood, for measuring ROS in inter-well regions in a depleted area. The new partitioning tracers were qualified via laboratory experiments and are deemed to be very stable at reservoir conditions (213°F and a salinity range of 60-200 kppm). The field pilot was conducted concurrently with a set of non-partitioning inter-well chemical tracer test (IWCTT) to determine reservoir connectivity, water breakthrough times, and injector-to-producer pair communication in an area selected for an IOR/EOR field pilot. An elaborate sampling and analysis program was carried out over a period of 30 months. This paper reviews the complete design and implementation of the test, operational issues, and the analyses and interpretation of the results. The breakthrough times of the passive and partitioning tracers are reported, and inter-well connectivity between the paired and cross-paired injectors and producers are analyzed. The ROS measured by a majority of the novel tracers is comparable to the saturations obtained via SWCTT, core and log derived saturations. The combination of conventional IWCTT and the novel partitioning tracers via PITT has been very useful in analyzing well interconnectivity, understanding the reservoir dynamics and quantifying remaining oil saturation distribution in the reservoir. This has led to better reservoir description and an improved dynamic simulation model.