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Abstract Currently, oil fields with complex reservoir properties are involved in the development of Russian oil Company (for example, Severo-Danilovskoye, Danenberg, Vostochno-Tokayskoye field (Korotkova M.H. et. al, 1998)), in which high requirements are imposed on the degree of preparation of formation water for injection into the reservoir pressure maintenance system. The supply of prepared water to the reservoir pressure maintenance system significantly improves oil production conditions and slows down the deterioration of reservoir properties. This ensures the displacement of oil from a larger number of pore-fractured channels, which increases the oil recovery factor. In this connection, the technology capable of solving the problems of preparing formation water for the reservoir pressure maintenance system at fields with low permeability of oil reservoirs is considered for implementation in the present work. Also, the solution of the production problem of cleaning the injected agent into the reservoir pressure maintenance system from hydrogen sulfide is considered to prevent deterioration of reservoir properties of the formation. The reagent-free method of formation water preparation is proposed as the described technology, in this case, the ozonation method. The main technological advantage of this method is the possibility of simultaneous purification of contaminated formation water from oil products and bacterial impurity, which can cause contamination of the formation with sulfate-absorbing bacteria (SHvelev T.G.,2005).
Section V/B, Paper 3 NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STANDL4RDIZATION RELATING TO METHODS OF TESTING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND TO THE MEASUREMENT OF BULK OIL QUANTITIES B Y 13. HYAMS ( * ) SYXOPSIS. The paper indicnlps the petroleum testing methods and oil metisiirernerat procedures recognized and used in about TO countries from zoh,ich the infornzntbon toas obtained. Information i s also given regarding Nation.al Standards bodies, where th,ese exist, tincl the extent to which they, or other local cissociated bodies, participatp in the production and presentation of attintlard methods f or testing and ,measuring crude oil and petroleum products. The need for internutional rather than national methods and procedures is emphasized. Unilateral amendment of methods such us those published by the -4?iierican Society /or Testing Materials (ASTM) and the Institute of PP - troleiinr. ( IP ) is deprecaled. Th,e need /or strengthening and nia1cin.g wider use of Technical Com- mittee No . 2 8 (Prtroleum Prodiicts) of th,e Jnternation,ab Organization for Standardization ( ISOlTC 2 8 ) is eiizphnsbzed. ThLs in tiirn ioonld benefit all concerned with, quality and quantity control over petroleum products purchased and sold , tlom,estically and internationally. R@UMB. Duns cette coni ?ti uraicatiorr. on passe en revue les mithodes d'essai &U pitrole et les trchniqiies d e mesure des huiles ininerales reconnues et employees dans 7 0 p,ays environ desquels on ri reCll directement ces inform,ations. On fait aussi allusion aux organismes nationaux de nornzalisntion et ri l'activitd que ces organ.ismes ( ou bien leurs sections) diveloppent en prisentan,t et publiant des nidthodes unitides pour la rnesure et l'analyse du pitrole brut et des protluits dl.u pitrole. On met en relief l'opportunitd d'appliquer des methodes internationales en remplacement des rndthodes nationa- les. Les modifications unilatirales apportees a des rndthodes comme celles pziblides par 1'Arnerican Society for Testing Materials ( ASTM ) et pa,r I'Institute of Petroleum ( IP ) sont Ci iviter. On sozr1ign.e en particulier la nicessiti de rnievx renseigner le Conaite Technique No 28 (Produits du Pitrole) de l'lnternational Standardization Organisation ( ISOITC 2 8 ) et de la consulter plus lnrge- ment. Cela apporterait un veritable avantage U tous ceux qui s'intdressent au contrcile tant quUlitU,tif pie quantitatif des produits du petrole nchetis et vewlirs nussi bien ir l'interieur qu'h b'itranger. RIASSUN'TO. Sono elencdi i nzetodi di prom del petrolio e i procedimenti tli misure degli oli `mi- izernli ricon.osciuti ed impiegati. in, circa. 70 paesi dei quali furono direttamente ottenute le infOTmU- zioni. Viene anche fatto cenno agli Enti Nazionali di Unipcazio.ne, ove questi esistano, e all`attivith che gbi stessi (0 lor0 branche) svol.gono nella emissione e pubblicazione di metodi unificati per la ,miSU- razione e l'nnadisi del p
PROGRESS IN OIL MEASUREMENT STANDARDISATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM II. HYAMS * Synopsis The paper is complementary to that prepared by Mr. L. C. Burroughs on "Progress in Oil Measure- ment Standardization in the United States". It sketches the development of the work under- taken by the Institute of Petroleum in 1932 to the present day. Details are given of the various books and papers which have been published leading to the forthcoming production of the joint A.S.T.M./ I.P. book "Petroleum Measurement Tables" and the Manual of standardised oil measurement proce- dures. The significance of the valuable cooperative work with A.S.T.M. is stressed. Résumé Cette communication fait le complément de celle préparée par monsieur L. C. Burroughs sur: "Progrès dans la standardisation du mesurage de pétrole aux Etats-Unis". Elle dessine à grands traits le dévelop- pement depuis 1932 jusqu'à nos jours du travail entrepris par l'Institut du Pétrole. On donne des détails sur les divers livres et communications pu- bliés qui ont contribué à la composition du livre combiné de l'A.S.T.34. et de l'1.P.: "Tables de mesurage de pétrole" et du "Manuel des procédés de mesurage de pétrole standardisés". On souligne l'importance du précieux travail de la coopération avec l'AS.T.34. by Mr. L. C. Burroughs, Chairman of the American Society for Testing Materials, Division II. As Mi. Burroughs has plainly shown, standardisation work in the field of oil measurement has progressed side by side in the two countries. Mr. Burroughs and the present writer agreed that the 1951 World Petro- leum Congress provided a suitable opportunity for recording briefly the results, of the individual and cooperative work undertaken by A.S.T.M. and I.P. The views expressed by Mr. Burroughs in his paper relating to the need for accurate and uniform methods and procedures in oil measurement opera- tions have the fullest support not only of the Insti- tute of Petroleum but of all in the petroleum in- dustry who desire to promote smooth international trade within and outside the industry. Early I. P. Standardisation-Interconversion of Units of Measurement The need for standardisation of oil measurement procedures has long been recognised in the United Kingdom although active steps to achieve this are, as in the case of U.S.A., only of comparatively re- cent date. Standardisation in oil measurement mat- ters may first be traced back to the setting up, in 1991, of a Standardisation Committee of the In- stitute of Petroleum, (then the Institution of Petro- leum Technologists). The work carried out by thiy committee during its first year dealt with qualitative tests. but the effect on oil measurement of the Dro- posed standard method for specific gravity deterAin- ation and the drawing up of specifications for pe- troleum hydrometers was brought to light in the discussion on a paper on Standardisation (i)* read before the Institution in 1922. The q
Section III,íE, Paper 6 IMPROVEMENT OF ACTIVITY AND SELECTIVITY OF SOLID CATALYSTS BY ERNST W. NAGELSTETN (*) SYNOPSIS. It is shown in this work, by the examples of alumina and alumina-containing catalysts, that many commercial catalysts - despite their apparent homogeneity - are in fact mixtures of differently active and selective components. This is experimentally proven by the preparation of homogeneous fractions of these catalysts. Their homogeneity depends - apart from other known factors - essentially on the strict control of the contact-times between the fresh precipitate and the precipitation solution. These contact-times have been modified within large limits and thus catalysts of defined and predicted activity and selectivity have been obtained. It has been possible to find out for what reasons the same alumina differs greatly in its activity and selectivity if used for various catalysis. Aluminas hacing predicted activity and selectivity have been prepared for a certain number of chemical reactions. The suitability of aluminas in composed catalysts, especially in cracking catalysts, has been examined. A way for improving the preparation of cracking catalysts, as well as synthetic and natural catalysts, is indicated. In the experimental part the continuous manufacture of aluminas with increased activity and selectivity is described. A simple test method for alumina - or silica gel-containing catalysts, permitting qeneral conclusions on their catalytic hehavior, is discussed. RfSUMB. On, montre dans ce travail par des exemples de catalyseurs ir base d'alumine ou con,- tenant de l'al?cmin,e, que bien des catalyseurs, utilisés dans l'industrie, m,algré leur homogénéité appa,- rente, sont en fait des mélanges de composants dont l'activité et la sélectivité sont di fiérentes. CeCi est prouvé expérimentalem,ent par la préiraration de fractions homogenes de ces catalyseurs. Leu,r hom,ogénéité dépend essentiellenbent, l'eXCPpti,on d'autres facteurs connus, du strict contróle des temps de contact entre le produit précipité frais et sa solution.. Ces temps de contact 0n.t été modifiés dans de très larges liin-ites, et des catalyseurs d'activité et sélectivité bien défhies et prévues ont ain,si été obten,us. II a été possible de faire ressortir pour quelles raisons la mPme alumine difière forte- m,ent des points de vue activité et sélectivité si elle est utilisée pour diflérents catalyseurs. Des alu- mines d'a.ctivité et sélectivité déterminées on,t été préparées pour un, certain nombre de réactions chimiques. On, a ezaminé le comportement des alumines dans les catalyseurs composés et plus spi- cia1emen.t darts les catalyseurs de cracking. On indique le m.o?ien d'am,éliorer la préparation des catalyseurs de cra,cking aussi bien svnthétiques que naturels. On y discute éga1emen.t un test simple qui permet de conclure sur le comportement catalytique des catalyseurs bme rl'alum1ine
DISCUSSION OXIDATIVE METHYLATION, NEW ROUTE TO PETROCHEMICALS THROUGH ALTERNATIVE FEEDSTOCK Chairman: R. F. BADDOUR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) Scientific Secretary: R. L. ALLEN, Shell International Petroleum (UK) The CHAIRMAN introduced Mrs. O. M. REVENKO, the presenter of the paper, and also Prof. V. M. GRYAZNOV, who would assist with interpretation. After the presentation, Mrs. Revenko answered a number of questions from the audience. S. NOWAK (GDR) asked the following questions concerning toluene oxidative methylation (TOM): 1. Can you give more details about flexibility with regard to the final products: is it possible to change the composition of the reaction products? 2. What is your opinion on the separation of main and by-products? Are there any problems? 3. Can you give more details of how to master the exothermic reaction and describe the technological scheme of transformation of toluene? The following answers were given: 1. TOM is a flexible process. In changing the process conditions and/or using the recycle of individual products we can vary the yields of the desired prod- ucts over a rather wide range. When toluene conver- sion is 30 to 50%, the individual products have the following yields: benzene from 10 to 30%, ethylben- zene and styrene from 30 to 70%, Phenols from 3 to 20%. We have not so far succeeded in making the reaction more specific. Changing the composition of the starting mixture is the simplest way of changing the product distribution. 2. In their qualitative composition, the condensates produced by TOM are similar to those of industrial production of benzene, styrene and Phenols. The valuable products may be recovered by the known methods, for example, by rectification. The flow diagram and operating modes for the desired products recovery are tested in a pilot plant. It is recommended that the intermediates (aldehydes) and some by- products (diphenyl, dibenzene) should be recycled. 3. The flow diagram of TOM, tested in a pilot plant, is discussed in our preprinted paper. Although the TOM process involves a complex radical-chain reac- tion, the technology of the former is rather simple. The starting mixture of toluene/natural gas is heated to the reaction start temperature and mixed with oxygen at the reactor inlet. The process evolves in an adiabatic reactor. The reaction mixture is quenched and sent to separation. The gas phase, unreacted toluene, and intermediates (aldehydes, diphenyl, dibenzyl) are recycled. TOM is exothermal. The heat of the reaction may be used to preheat the starting mixture (toluene + natural gas) or to produce steam for plant needs. The CHAIRMAN commented that this process should be useful for dehydrogenation reactions, such as ethylbenzene to styrene. He asked whether dehy- drogenations had been studied and, if so, how reaction conditions and selectivities compared with those for methylation. Was a catalyst required for simple dehydr