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Water disposal in the Permian Basin is likely to hit a new all-time high in the fourth quarter of 2020, exceeding 1.3 billion bbl for the period for the first time in history, potentially further expanding Texas' total water market which had already recovered close to its pre-COVID record in October, a Rystad Energy analysis projects. The water-disposal market is the last growing market of US land services. Behind the expected expansion is a combination of factors including a rapid recovery in activity, a steady clip of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and base production structurally shifting to become more mature, which increases the water-to-oil ratio. The rapid recovery in the disposal market will position the region's dedicated midstream operators for better financial performance heading into 2021, with improved market sentiment as activity levels tick up. Before production curtailments started in March, Texas' underground injection possibly surpassed 30 million B/D.
Abstract This paper describes the development of the Production Water Management Plan for Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) and its subsequent implementation. It outlines the current water production and disposal practices, the existing Omani legislation on waste water disposal, and trials carried out by PDO, all of which resulted in the development of the plan and an implementation strategy agreed by PDO and the Government to achieve a produced water management operation that is sound both in environmental principle and practice. Introduction PDO currently produces some 330,000 m3/day of water as a by-product of its oil output of about 135,000 m3/day. The volume of this production water has been steadily increasing over time and is predicted to rise to about 650,000 m3/day by the year 2005. The disposal of large volumes of production water presents PDO with important environmental and economical challenges. In order to manage these challenges, the PDO Production Water Management Plan was developed and agreed with the Government and private shareholders. In resolving the best technical solution for disposal at any of PDO's production sites, PDO has fully evaluated the principles of the PDO Production Water Management Plan by testing and then implementing the latest state-of-the-art technologies. Studies and trials have been carried out in order to achieve improved cleanliness of production water, and to identify economically attractive usage alternatives for the water. In particular field trials to test various deoiling equipment have been carried out, as well as a detailed study and field trial into the use of disposal water as irrigation water for an agricultural project. As a pre-study for the agricultural conceptual work, other alternative water disposal methods, such as the use of evaporation ponds, ocean discharge and production of potable water, were evaluated but found to be economically less attractive than the agricultural alternative. Having completed these trials and studies, plans have been put in place to bring production water disposal in all production centres into line with the principles of the Production Water Management Plan. The main outcome has been the implementation of Deep Water Disposal for most production centres in the South of Oman. Water Production The disposal of large volumes of production water presents PDO with an environmental and water resources conservation issue of considerable importance, in terms of both quality and overall quantity. The volume to dispose of is expected to rise over the next decade, with no significant increase in the volume of water that can be profitably utilised either for reservoir pressure maintenance or for other purposes. High water production is caused by bottom or edge water drive, high oil viscosity and low density contrast. Well over half of PDO's Oil initially in Place (STOIIP) is in reservoirs with conditions resulting in high water production due to natural water drive. P. 265^
Abstract The PNZ (Partitioned Neutral Zone) has four onshore producing fields bordering Kuwait and Saudi Arabia and is being operated by Joint Operations of Kuwait Oil Company and Saudi Arabian Texaco. The four fields are Wafra, South Umm Gudair (SUG), South Fuwaris and Humma. The majority of production in the PNZ comes from the Ratawi Oolite in the Wafra and South Umm Gudair fields. Production from these fields began in the early 1950s and as maturing of these fields with the passage of time the associated water production has significantly increased which has resulted an environmental hazard in handling and disposal of this vast produced water. This challenge has been met in the past utilizing first surface evaporation pits and then augmented with peripheral water injection into the Ratawi producing reservoir. Today JO is meeting this challenge with the innovative method of horizontal Mega disposal wells completed in the karsted Shuaiba formation. These horizontal Mega wells are capable of taking up to +/- 80,000 BWPD on gravity feed. So currently, +/- 750,000 BWPD of produced water in JO is handled by injection of +/- 220,000BWPD into the peripheral of the Ratawi Oolite in the main Wafra field for the Pressure Maintenance Project (PMP) and through disposal of +/- 530,000 BWPD into the karsted Shuaiba formation. This paper highlights the integrated approach of studying the 3D Seismic interpretation, geologic, and engineering data resulted in the identification of Shuaiba karst Structure as the target disposal zone. The construction and completion of Horizontal Mega wells with 9 5/8″ tubing completion in the Shuaiba karst has resulted in achieving the company target of Zero water disposal in surface pits. It is a remarkable achievement and this technique is uniquely introduced for the first time in Kuwait and could have a potential to be used in the other areas in the Middle East Region. Introduction Until January, 1996 for SUG and January, 2000 for main Wafra about +/- 350,000 BWPD produced water in PNZ was disposed in evaporation pits. The surface pits are environmental hazardous and is undesired practice, therefore JO Management decided to stop this practice and move toward down hole water disposal schemes to achieve Zero Disposal of produced water in surface pits. Shuaiba and Zubair are Lower Cretaceous formations (Fig No.1) that have been penetrated by every Ratawi producer in Wafra Field. Drilling through the Shuaiba has been a concern of severe loss circulation and numerous bottom hole assemblies have been lost due to stuck and hence resulted most of these wells in side tracking the hole. After having study of the characteristics of the Shuaiba formation which represents as wide spread with thick sandstone beds of the Zubair below and Wara / Burgan above. It is Dolomitic limestone, medium to coarse crystalline in texture. It is vuggy to cavernous at time and its thickness changes from 102–180 ft and is spread through out PNZ Field in Wafra. These characteristics appealed to use this formation in benefit of disposing of vast quantities of water produced from different formations rather than disposing in surface pits.
The demands for fresh water used in hydraulic-fracturing operations are placing constraints on water resources in some regions of the United States. Because of the high volumes of fresh water needed for hydraulic fracturing, the competing demand driven by industrial, municipal, and agricultural users has decreased the availability of fresh water and increased associated costs. Along with higher acquisition costs for fresh water, produced-water-disposal costs also have increased. To overcome these challenges, operators are using alternative methods of water management, including recycling and reusing produced water, to help reduce the total amount of fresh water required for their fracturing operations and, at the same time, reduce the amount of produced water that must be transported, treated, and disposed of. If the produced water is not recycled, the water is pumped into disposal wells.
Abstract In order to permit economic operation of Placerita Oil Field leases, a request was Placerita Oil Field leases, a request was made of the Division of Oil and Gas of the State of California for a waiver on the regulation limiting the sand face pressure of water disposal operations to a value less than the apparent frac gradient. This is an account of the justification presented to the DOG for seeking a variance from the regulations, the DOG's positive response, and subsequent field operations. Introduction Water disposal operations are a necessary part of oil production in today's oil field practices. It follows that it is the goal of the operator to dispose of the maximum quantity of water in a single well as is compatible with the needs of protecting the environment and securing the maximum efficient recovery of crude oil. Presently, the Division of Oil and Gas of the State of California (DOG) limits the sand face pressure in disposal wells to 80% of the lithological gradient, 1 psi./ft, or that lower pressure at which a break in the rate vs. pressure curve occurs in a step-rate test. The reason for limiting the disposal pressure is the fear that pressures in excess pressure is the fear that pressures in excess of those cited above may induce vertical fractures in the reservoir. A possible consequence of such a fracture is that the injected after may invade reservoirs of potable water or of penetrating through an oil potable water or of penetrating through an oil bearing stratum either above or below the point of injection. point of injection. Because of the limitations on disposal well head pressures, the operator in many fields is faced with drilling a large number of disposal wells and experiencing high operating costs to dispose of produced water. The profitability of oil production is thereby jeopardized. The Tosco Enhanced Oil Recovery Corporation encountered such a problem in operating the Placerita Field, Los Angeles County, and an expansion project aimed at the recovery of some ten million barrels of oil by steam injection was threatened because of the burdens put on the project by the limitation in disposal well head pressure. This was brought to the attention of the Division of Oil and Gas of the State of California, and Tosco submitted a brief in request for a variance from the regulations which would permit them to demonstrate that water disposal above fracturing pressures, or following the propagation of a fracture in the disposal sand would not jeopardize either potable water sands nor adjacent oil potable water sands nor adjacent oil producing reservoirs. producing reservoirs. The Division of Oil and Gas granted such a variance. This is an account of the brief that was submitted to the DOG and the actions that have transpired since the variance was approved. "Orientation of Induced Fractures" The literature refers to two types of induced fractures: horizontal and vertical. The implication of the former term is that the entire overburden of rock is lifted and floated on a horizontal sheet of water that courses through the rock from the point of injection, and the implication of the latter term is that the rock is torn apart in a vertical plane and the separation is maintained by a vertical sheet of water coursing through the plane of separation. P. 143