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Abstract International oil and gas E&P companies are being exposed to a steady proliferation of policies, laws, guidelines and other standards applicable to their activities. These are accompanied by expanded potential for legal and other liability. There are a number of treaties and other international agreements potentially relevant to E&P activities. National laws are the primary source of environmental law of concern to companies. However, guidelines developed by international governmental, financing, industry and other organizations are establishing standards to which companies may be held legally accountable. A number of key environmental issues and trends are influencing the development of environmental laws and generating areas of legal exposure for companies. Many basic company activities which involve lawyers are potentially affected. Companies can and should undertake a variety of activities to manage the environmental legal risks they flee. Lawyers and negotiators for companies will play an essential role in developing and implementing such risk management programs. Introduction International oil and gas companies are encountering increasing demands worldwide for continued improvement in their environmental performance. They are also being exposed to a steady proliferation of policies, laws, guidelines and other standards applicable to their activities. These are accompanied by expanded potential for legal, and associated financial, public affairs and other liabilities. All of this is occurring in an era of intensifying industry competition and cost pressure for both international companies and their national government partners. These trends are likely to continue. This paper is intended to provide information that will help international oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) companies manage some of the environmental legal risks they flee. It addresses four major topics:What should companies know about international environmental law? What are some key issues and trends companies should anticipate will influence development of laws and create legal risks for companies? What company legal activities will most likely be affected by those issues and trends? What can companies do to try to manage relevant environmental legal risks? What Should Companies know About Environmental Law? The basic legal framework within which international oil and gas E&P companies operate consists of international, national, regional/state and local laws. In some countries, environmental requirements will be found at all these levels. In addition to such "hard" law, there is a rapidly evolving body of what may be considered "soft" international environmental law. This consists of non-binding instruments, such as international conference declarations, and guidelines from government, industry and other organizations, that have the potential to evolve into legal standards. All of these "standards" can generate issues regarding conformance by oil and gas E&P company operations. They can, in turn, give rise to potential legal exposure for companies conducting those operations. Key Treaties and Conventions. Treaties, conventions, protocols and other international governmental legal agreements may establish mandates for national governments to regulate specific industrial activities. P. 105
Espinosa, Beatriz Nassur (Vicente Hermogerio Schmall, PETROBRAS) | Azevedo, Ricardo Santos (Vicente Hermogerio Schmall, PETROBRAS) | Linhares, Mônica Moreira (Vicente Hermogerio Schmall, PETROBRAS) | de Souza, Angela Martins (Vicente Hermogerio Schmall, PETROBRAS)
Abstract The fossil fuels are pillars to the global economy; however, they are a major contributor to Greenhouse Gas emissions. In light of this, the oil industry can contribute to GHG emissions reduction efforts worldwide, as well as to the sustainable economic growth. This paper intends to present the Company Climate Change Strategic Project activities, the first results and actions implemented to manage GHG emissions. The Company commitment to the climate change mitigation effort is evident in the strategic plan statement through the pledges to boost our share in the biofuel market, lead domestic biodiesel production and increase our participation in the ethanol fuel trade. The Company's efforts also include an energy efficiency corporate program, an action plan to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions, and a portfolio of investments related to R&D. As a result of the Company's proactive commitment, the Climate Change Strategic Project was set to keep the Company on the sustainability road. A set of indicators appraises the evolution of environmental performance in order to pursue environmental standards of excellence and among those indicators, voluntary avoided GHG emission goal was set to upstream and downstream operations. In order to monitor air pollutants and GHG emissions a system named SIGEA® accounts for more than thirty-thousand sources. Besides, the Company Research Center created a Technological Project - Proclima to support technology developments on energy efficiency, renewable energy and biofuels, and Carbon Capture and Geological Sequestration. Regarding biofuels, the Company has been playing a key role on the logistics to support the Brazilian sugar cane alcohol project named Proalcool since the nineteen's seventies. This project has prevented hundreds of millions of tons of carbon emissions. In addition three Company´s industrial plants are operating in Brazil to produce biodiesel. The project will allow a company-wide integration of GHG mitigation actions to reduce the emissions intensity of the operations and the products, granting the commitment with the sustainable development. It also supports the Company operations with integrated growth, profitability and both environmental and social responsibility.
Reddy, Vijaya Bhasker (Senior Advisor (Environment), Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations (ADCO)) | Al Bisher, Khalid (Vice President (CHSE), ADCO) | Monaghan, David (Environmental Engineer, ADCO)
O)). Release of these gases affect climate change indirectly and pose a serious challenge to global development and project planning due to uncertainty of the climate change impacts. Traditionally, projects are assessed for their potential impact on the environment. Often climate change mitigation and adaptation aspects have not been considered during the project life cycle impact assessment. Reducing GHG emissions continues to be one of the main policy drivers to meet the Kyoto Protocol targets and commitments under various climate change conventions. Current Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) methodology focuses on conventional pollutant discharges. Climate change due to GHG emissions are not considered as a pollution issue. This paper explores the opportunities and challenges in integrating climate change as a consideration that can be embedded in the EIA process.
Royal Dutch Shell on 26 March outlined a scenario in which, by 2070, we would be using far less of the company's own product--oil--as cars become electric, a massive carbon storage industry develops, and transportation begins a shift toward a reliance on hydrogen as an energy carrier. The company's Sky scenario was designed to imagine a world that complies with the goals of the Paris climate agreement, managing to hold the planet's warming to "well below" a rise of 2 degrees Celsius, or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, above preindustrial levels. Shell has said that it supports the Paris agreement. The scenario, which finds the world in a net-zero emissions state by 2070, is based on the idea that "a simple extension of current efforts, whether efficiency mandates, modest carbon taxes, or renewable energy supports, is insufficient for the scale of change required," the oil company document reads. "The relevant transformations in the energy and natural systems require concurrent climate policy action and the deployment of disruptive new technologies at mass scale within government policy environments that strongly incentivize investment and innovation."
ExxonMobil said it has created a new business to commercialize its extensive low-carbon technology portfolio. The new business, ExxonMobil Low Carbon Solutions, initially will focus on carbon capture and storage, one of the critical technologies required to achieve net-zero emissions and the climate goals outlined in the Paris Agreement.