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There are at present a number of industry (e.g. IPIECA/ OGP/API) and non-industry (e.g. CDP, GRI, ISO) initiatives to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting standards for oil and gas exploration and production activities. However, the focus of these projects is on measurement and reporting of direct and indirect emissions from operating companies—little is being done to accommodate the specificities of oilfield service companies within these standards.
Oilfield service company GHG emission profiles and emission intensities are significantly different from those of their operating company clients. Fuel use in road vehicles and in marine vessels and drilling units are likely to be the most significant forms of energy use, and therefore the most significant emissions sources. A large service company may have several thousands of road vehicles, or tens of marine vessels in operation, either owned or contracted. These emission sources are likely to be geographically dispersed and mobile, which when coupled with the number of emission sources can make data collection very challenging. Emissions from fixed facilities will, in comparison, probably be relatively insignificant. This paper examines what is being done at one oilfield services company.
Looking further along the business supply chain, indirect emissions associated with service company activities generally fit into three categories: logistics and business travel; production of materials; and utility services (e.g. electricity supply). Indeed, a conservative analysis suggests that levels of the most significant indirect emissions exceed those of direct emissions for service companies. The absence of a systematic, global GHG reporting practice combined with the dispersed nature of the sources makes the collection of emissions data associated with these services and activities difficult. Additionally the inclusion of service companies with operators in certain indexes makes compromises comparability.
STUDY OF THE HYDROCARBONS EMISSIONS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS OF A REFINERY D. A. Clemente E. Tomaz State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org To minimize the emissions and the wastes produced in a refinery it is necessary first of all to identify its pollutants. This work consists in estimating the hydrocarbons emissions of a petrochemical refinery and studying the behavior of this pollutant in atmosphere. For this, was carried out an emissions inventory in which was estimated the emission rate for the loss evaporation of the hydrocarbons stored in stockage tanks calculated using an emission model, called TANKS, developed by the U.S.E.P.A. and the emission rate for the loss evaporation of hydrocarbons of oily water basins and water-oil separator of waste water system calculated using emissions factors. After that, it was used a dispersion model, ISCST3, by which it was gotten the isoconcentration curves of hydrocarbons in all industrial area. In accordance to the emissions inventory carried out, the 153 stockage tanks of this refinery emit approximately 92 Kg/h of hydrocarbons and the waste water system emits 1217 Kg/h of hydrocarbons. The results have gotten by ISCST3 dispersion model in terms of maximum concentration time average were equal to 1217 mg/m3 and in terms of annual average concentration were 17.6 mg/m3. This shows that the dispersion of this pollutant isn't favored, once its emission sources don't have forced stream being concentrate next to its sources. In this way, there is a high potential of ozone formation due to hydrocarbons reaction with nitrogen oxides in light presence. what confirms that theses tools, emission model and dispersion model, are good to be used together in estimating hydrocarbons air quality in refinery. BLOCK 2 -- FORUM 12 475
As petroleum companies throughout the world work to improve their understanding of potential contributions to human induced climate change, developing an inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is an important step for each company. In order to achieve consistent, meaningful data, it is important that petroleum companies have consistent definitions of what is included in the inventory, and use consistent methodologies for calculating the emissions. The International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) have taken the lead in developing guidance for reporting of GHG emissions. A recently-completed IPIECA-led effort has led to the development of the Petroleum Industry Guidelines for Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions, which focuses on petroleum industry accounting and reporting of GHG emissions at the facility through the corporate level. The Guidelines were coordinated with API's Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry. The API Compendium has been developed to provide a consistent set of emission estimation methodologies for the petroleum industry. API is also providing a tool for estimating emissions, the SANGEA™ Energy and Emissions Estimating System. This paper will describe highlights of the Guidelines, the Compendium, and provide examples of how these documents can be used with the SANGEA™ software tool to develop a meaningful estimate of emissions from petroleum industry operations.
Results, Observations and Conclusions: A credible, systematic approach, as embodied in the Petroleum Industry Guidelines and the API Compendium, provides strategic value to the petroleum industry as we address the climate change issue.
By working towards a consistent standard for greenhouse gas emissions estimating, our industry improves its credibility and provides a foundation for future cooperative efforts among petroleum industry companies, regulators and other industries to address this important issue.
CLEAN BURNING GASOLINE FLEXIBILITY IN THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN BURNING GASOLINE D.P. Hollrah and J.W. Roos, Ethyl Corporation. Abstract. Tighter controls are being placed on fuel composition to assist in reducing vehicle emissions. Gasoline sulfur levels, distillation properties, and oxygenate, aromatic and olefin content are the targets of ever more stringent specifications. With tighter control on fuel properties, the refiner's methods to produce gasoline are restrained. The antiknock additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl(MMT), provides the refiner with additional flexibility to meet gasoline specifications. In addition, the use of MMT can lead to reductions in vehicle emissions of NOx, and its N2O component, a potent greenhouse gas. flexibility, but also provides other positive
benefits. Two different linear programming studies of the U.S. refining industry (Turner, Throughout the world, national Mason and Company and Sobotka and governments are setting regulations that will Company) concluded that use of MMT in bring about cleaner air. As a result, many unleaded gasoline offers the following refiners are under increasing pressure to benefits: reformulate their gasoline. An important aspect of fuel quality is the gasoline's octane rating. · Lower reformer severity Proper octane level is necessary to insure · Reduced furnace emissions of pollutants efficient vehicle operation. The antiknock and greenhouse gases compound, MMT provides the refiner with · Lower aromatic content of gasoline gasoline blending flexibility by offering · Reduced crude requirements economic octane and cleaner burning fuel. MMT raises the octane quality of In this paper applications of MMT in the gasoline, which allows the refinery reformer production of gasoline are discussed. The unit to operate at less severe temperatures and benefits that the refiner can realize in terms of pressure; approximately 2 to 6 RON depending flexibility, improved efficiency of gasoline upon the MMT concentration and amount of production and lower refinery emissions are reformate in the gasoline pool. This lower evaluated. In addition, the use of MMT to reformer severity reduces fuel gas formulate cleaner burning gasoline, gasoline requirements by up to 3 percent, which in turn that yields lower regulated and unregulated reduces refinery emissions of pollutants vehicle tailpipe emissions, is also reviewed. including NOx and greenhouse gases. Lower reformer severity also produces a Use of MMT for Gasoline reformate with lower aromatics. This assists Production those refiners attempting to meet reduced At the recommended dosages for unleaded aromatic levels in future gasoline gasoline, MMT can increase the octane specifications. The Turner, Mason & number by up to 3 numbers. MMT is used in Company studies estimated that the aromatic parts per million (ppm) quantities versus content of gasoline could be lowered by 2 to 3 volume percent quantities typicall