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OUTSTANDING STUDENT CHAPTERS AGH University of Science and Technology Al Habeeb College of Engineering and Technology Hyderabad Almetyevsk State Oil Institute American University In Cairo British University Caspian State University of Technologies and Engineering Escuela Militar de Ingeniería Santa Cruz Federal University of Technology Owerri Florida State University Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) International University of East Africa Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University Montanuniversität Leoben Moscow State University New Mexico Tech Niger Delta University Nnamdi Azikiwe University Oklahoma State University Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University Pennsylvania State University Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering Suez University Sultan Qaboos Texas A&M University Texas A&M - Qatar Ufa State Petroleum Technological University Universidad Nacional del Comahue Universidade de São Paulo Universidade Federal do Ceará Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Universitatea "Petrol-Gaze" Ploiești University of Oklahoma University of Petroleum & Energy Studies University of Technology and Management University of Western Australia Vrije University Amsterdam (VU) Zhangyr Khan West Kazakstan Agrarian Technical University
Abstract A historical review of the evolution and development of engineering and technology generally in Nigeria is first presented. Major efforts at indigenous capacity building in the Nigerian oil industry did not commence until about 60 years after the first exploration efforts and ten years after oil discovery at Oloibiri. It was observed that in the last three decades, significant efforts have been made at establishing some institutions and infrastructure necessary for technology transfer and indigenous capacity building. Unfortunately, important requirements like favourable economic and political climate and essential linkages have been largely missing. A reliable survey and database of indigenous technology that can be applied in the oil industry is also missing. A general appraisal of the oil industry shows that while there is significant local expertise in Engineering services in such areas as drilling fluids engineering, PVT analysis, pipeline pigging and light facilities engineering, indigenous technological capacity is still very low and there is high dependence on foreign technology. We reiterate the well-known fact that ownership of production cannot be separated from the technology of production hence the need for a state-backed institutional framework for sustainable indigenous technology development and promotion of local content in the Nigerian oil industry as has been done in other counties and in the Nigerian defense industry. Introduction Technology is the systematic application of basic scientific skills to optimally produce and utilize the materials and needs of society. It is developed through inventions, innovations and investment in materials, processes or techniques. Technology can help reduce poverty, enhance international competitiveness and build social capability(1). It is vital to national survival and security, and forms the basis of industrialization and development. It is generally accepted that technology is the major growth engine of other economic factors such as land, labour, capital and education. It has long been recognized that technology proceeds under peculiar situations and its development cannot be achieved without consideration to the social, cultural and economic environment. Thus, technology develops faster when it has a close, compact interaction with the society such that the needs of the society provides inspiration for scientific and technological creativity, while on the other hand, an understanding society is able to fully exploit the benefits of technology. A society that has not experienced such a proper ‘marriage’, such that there is a general absence of the culture and context of science and technology, is bound to remain underdeveloped longer than necessary. Such is the case of Nigeria.
In the past 25 years our appetite for energy has been sharply whetted. At ever-increasing costs, petroleum engineering will have to become more and more sophisticated and will have to be applied aggressively if that appetite is to be appeased at anything like a palatable price. This review is cast along two parallel developments:The growing contribution of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME to the advancement of petroleum technology, highlighted through its Journal of Petroleum Technology and its appendage, the Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. A performance profile that reflects the positive results of applying this petroleum technology. One could pack this allotted space by citing scores of individuals and their many professional and technical contributions. Such an approach would, no doubt, be fraught with omissions. So, except to relate major SPE-AIME giant steps forward in staff leadership (three names), the contributions of members will have to be read between the lines. First, a very brief scenario on the Society as the organization that started and has published the Journal of Petroleum Technology. After World War I, in 1922, some "engineers" directing their activities toward drilling for and producing oil found a home in AIME (American Institute producing oil found a home in AIME (American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers). This was a natural for professionals in the extractive industries. They constituted the Petroleum Div., parallel to other divisions in AIME. Organized about the same time was the Mid-Continent Section, which included everything in the Mid-Continent geographically as far as oil was concerned and also had some mining and metals members. The Petroleum Div. was administered out of New York AIME headquarters. After World War II, petroleum members prevailed upon AIME to employ a secretary with an office in Dallas - William H. Strang. This might be referred to as the first major step toward SPE-AIME as it is today. In the fall of 1948 the Petroleum Div. pleaded its case before the AIME board in New York for increased autonomy. With some reluctance these requests were granted and the Petroleum Div. became The Petroleum Branch of AIME. A principal change brought about at that time was the delegation of responsibility to the branch to handle its own publishing, plan its meetings, sell advertising, and so forth. This started the 25 years that our Society is celebrating, commemorating the publication of the first Journal of Petroleum Technology. At this time, Bill Strang accepted an assignment with the API and Joe B. Alford came on the scene as Executive Secretary of the Petroleum Branch. With considerable delegated responsibility, the Petroleum Branch in its pilot test moved aggressively Petroleum Branch in its pilot test moved aggressively forward. To improve its image and growth potential, three important actions were taken:The Journal of Petroleum Technology was published. published. Petroleum sections of AIME were authorized, geographically overlapping traditional AIME section boundaries. P. 1337
Growing numbers of National Oil Companies (NOCs) have experienced great changes since the beginning of the 21 st century which have transformed them into International Energy Companies. The challenges of internationalization have led NOCs of China to pay more attention to building technology innovation systems, which promoted indigenous innovation capacity and technological competitiveness in the global market. This paper is based on the study and analysis of Chinese NOCs' technology innovation systems, and emphasizes the building of these systems in terms of how they have facilitated the companies' transition. A detailed review based on case studies in China indicates that organization, facilities and mechanisms are the key elements and emphasis in the building of Chinese NOCs' technology innovation system. NOCs of China restructured their technology innovation organization structures, optimizing the allocation of innovation resources from R&D to commercialization in both upstream and downstream operations. Facilities are the foundation of technology innovation activity, and in this respect NOCs of China invested in building or upgrading labs/pilots to support their technology innovation activities and promote the development of science and technology in the national petroleum industry. Mechanisms such as stable investment, technical talent and commercial deployment policies incentivized the application of new technology and accelerated open innovation. This paper describes the practices of three NOCs of China in constructing technology innovation systems and the significant achievements they have made in enhancing their indigenous innovative capacity and strengthening international cooperation, contributing to Chinese NOCs' transition from technology followers to technology leaders.
Engineering education, and the professionals it produces, will continue to be subject to many changes and pressures through the 1990's. Their performance will be viewed from the perspectives of performance will be viewed from the perspectives of society and the many institutions that function within its framework. Technology will continue to change in the petroleum industry in response to its needs, and the pressures placed on it from other quarters.
The engineering profession, including its educational and application aspects, is always under scrutiny by industry, government, the profession itself, and by the segments of society it affects. How a profession is evaluated depends largely on the perspective that each of these institutions uses to perspective that each of these institutions uses to assess achievements by its professionals. What effects do they bring?
The change these professionals have wrought since World War II has been enormous. The rate of change of technology has been fueled by a cold war which fostered technology growth just as much as hot wars of the past. The showcase of this growth is the space program. The cold war has lasted over 40 years, and probably represents the longest technological competition between two ideologies that has ever been. In coupling with this, is the information explosion through the advent of the modern computer and communication media.
This constant change has required continual adjustment by the professionals, and also by educators to the learning programs which undergird the technology. The petroleum industry in the U.S. is mature and in need of new and better technology to apply to older fields as well as to develop new reservoirs that heretofore have been uneconomic. Such technology may emerge during the 1990's. If so, it will probably be complex, demanding a high level of specialization for competent analysis and execution.
Further constraints are apt to be present in the 1990's as a result of the environmental movement which is already intensifying and gaining public support. The petroleum industry and its professionals will need to adjust to meet new environmental professionals will need to adjust to meet new environmental challenges.
Internationally, the petroleum industry will continue to expand to fulfill a growing demand. The relative size of the U.S. industry will diminish giving added impetus to the growth in petroleum engineering programs in foreign countries. Even so, the U.S. industry will be an essential part of this global effort, so the need for the American professional will certainly be present. professional will certainly be present. PERSPECTIVES OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVES OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Perceptions of engineering and technology undergo discreet changes almost constantly. Sometimes these changes are observed immediately, but more often, they are publicized after a delay which can vary from months to years. Further, initial perceptions are occasionally altered depending on perceptions are occasionally altered depending on performance of a product, design, or process in performance of a product, design, or process in either a societal or industrial application.