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The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry is expected to see a series of new projects, driven by a growing appetite for natural gas. The new edition of Douglas-Westwood's World LNG Market Forecast 2015–2019 forecasts global capital expenditure (Capex) to total nearly USD 259 billion from 2015 to 2019 (Figure 1). This includes spending on baseload onshore and offshore liquefaction, LNG carriers, and LNG regasification at onshore and offshore fixed terminals. Australasia and North America will be the main center of liquefaction development while Asia will lead in installed capacity of import terminals. North America is projected to become a net exporter, transforming from the second largest import region over the past 5 years, to zero over the forecast period.
1. Market Four years ago liquefaction capacity was considered to be the bottleneck in the LNG market. This unbalance in supply/demand of LNG led to huge investments in new liquefaction capacity and in 2009 and 2010 there is 45 and 30 mtpa respectively of new liquefaction capacity that is scheduled to come on stream. Roughly half of these volumes are not yet sold to a specific customer and HLNG expects that the new capacity, combined with the challenging economic environment, will lead to a slight change in the shortage of liquefaction capacity that we have seen these last years. For the liquefaction projects with planned start-up from 2011 and onwards HLNG expects that there will be severe delays because of the increasing construction costs we have seen the last years, the decrease in oil and gas price and difficulties to obtain financing.
Nigeria LNG (NLNG) awarded an engineering, procurement, and construction contract worth over $4 billion to the Saipem-led SCD joint venture (JV) for Nigeria LNG's Train 7 project on the Bonny Island LNG complex in Nigeria. Saipem has a 60% share in the JV, which includes Daewoo E&C and Chiyoda Corporation, and said its share amounts to around $2.7 billion. The award follows the letter of intent signed in September 2019. The NLNG Train 7 Project comprises the construction of a complete LNG train and an additional liquefaction unit with a total capacity of approximately 8 mtpa, plus other associated utilities and infrastructures. The expansion project, which would bring total capacity to 30 mtpa, will include a liquefaction unit, an 84,200-m3 storage tank, a 36,000-m3 condensate tank, and three gas turbine generators.
Park, Changwon (Korea Gas Corporation R&D Institute) | Cho, Byunghac (Korea Gas Corporation R&D Institute) | Lee, Sanggyu (Korea Gas Corporation R&D Institute) | Kwon, YongSoo (Korea Gas Corporation R&D Institute)
The BOG (Boil off Gas) re-liquefaction process for the FLBT (Floating LNG Bunkering Terminal) requires compact and safety deign. The N2 expander process is well known as a simple process and it uses unburnt refrigerant, so it’s suitable for the BOG re-liquefaction process. The composition and amount of BOG were calculated for this process analysis. Based on the FLBT operating schedule, the BOG reliquefaction capacity was calculated. Single and dual expander processes were analyzed for the BOG re-liquefaction process. The purpose of process improvement is to increase the liquefaction efficiency using BOG feed gas boosting and heat recovery. The key design parameters were deducted from the optimization. The single N2 expander process is more suitable for BOG re-liquefaction of FLBT.
IMO (International Maritime Organization) is tightening up the environmental regulation of ship and maritime industry field. The combined effect of emission control regulation for ocean going vessels and the price advantage of gas over oil together with increasing gas availability renders LNG the most realistic and prospective choice of marine fuel. Instead of the common application of using the boil-off gas as fuel, the BOG re-liquefaction system provides a solution to liquefy the boil-off gas back to the cargo tanks. The BOG reliquefaction system has merit in the large saving in total fuel consumption and improved propulsion redundancy (Moon et., 2007).
In this paper, to store liquefied BOG which is generated in the FLBT is studied. The process analysis is as follows; 1) the composition and amount of BOG were calculated for this process analysis. 2) Based on the FLBT operating schedule, the BOG re-liquefaction capacity was calculated. 3) Single and dual expander processes were analyzed for the BOG re-liquefaction process. BOG feed gas boosting and heat recovery were adapted to both processes. The purpose of process improvement is to increase the liquefaction efficiency using BOG feed gas boosting and heat recovery. The key design parameters were deducted from the optimization.
Increasing gas demand and the requirement for short-term to medium-term import solutions have led to rapid growth in the floating regasification sector in recent years. The industry grew from the Gulf Gateway floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) unit in the Gulf of Mexico (2005 to 2012) to 10 operational vessels last year. Similarly, the floating liquefaction market is gaining traction with the first baseload FLNG liquefaction terminal, the Petronas Kumang Cluster project, due on stream in 2016. The emergence of floating liquefaction will drive a significant increase in total global capital expenditure (Capex) to 2019. While expenditure is expected to increase in the existing regasification market, the liquefaction sector is forecast to overshadow this, as Capex associated with a floating liquefaction terminal is more than triple that of a typical floating import terminal.