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Recently, I have been trying to wrap my mind around what has been going on with carbon capture utilization and/or sequestration (CCUS) over the past decade. I last looked at the topic while I was in Singapore thinking about how the industry might commercialize all that low- and variable-BTU gas in southeast Asia. The fundamental questions remain much the same: How can the production and facilities community help to drive down costs and build a better road to CCUS application? My periodic involvement feels a bit like my trips from Miri in Malaysia to Kuala Belait in Brunei. With CCUS and CCS (carbon capture and storage), government-funded studies and projects have demonstrated feasibility.
Imbus, Scott William (Chevron ETC) | Orr, Franklin M. (Stanford University) | Kuuskraa, Vello Alex (Advanced Resources International, Inc.) | Kheshgi, Haroon (ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company) | Bennaceur, Kamel (Schlumberger) | Gupta, Neeraj (Battelle Memorial Institute) | Rigg, Andy (CO2CRC) | Hovorka, Susan (Bureau of Economic Geology) | Myer, Larry R. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) | Benson, Sally M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)
Abstract Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is emerging as a key technology for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Applied Technology Workshop (ATW) on CO2 Sequestration (Galveston Island, Texas, Nov. 15–17, 2005) convened a diverse group of geoscience, engineering, economics and stakeholder experts to review the status of CCS and to identify the remaining critical issues that still serve as barriers to its acceptance and widespread deployment. Site assessment can be improved with systematic, generally accepted approaches that identify and focus on injection, capacity and containment risks. Reservoir simulation models can be adapted from oil and gas applications but further experimental work and code development are needed to quantify the role of major CO2 trapping mechanisms. Enhanced hydrocarbon recovery accompanying injection of CO2 is well established for CO2 EOR but its efficacy in EGR and ECBM is unclear. Well integrity, a key vulnerability in CO2 storage, should be addressed through modified well materials and construction approaches and cost effective remediation and intervention techniques. Field management issues, including risk assessment and monitoring, would benefit from development of accepted practices to apply through project lifecycle. Overall, the Workshop participants concluded that implementation of CCS, in a timely manner, represents a complex challenge that requires coordination of technical expertise, economic incentives, appropriate regulations and public acceptance. Storage assessment tools are available and adequate, although in need of refinement and standardization. Capture technology, however, requires more intense research aimed at new technologies and deep cost reduction. Infrastructure and regulatory development needs to reflect expectations and incentives from government bodies. Early implementation of CCS is expected to focus on the gas processing and other industries that produce high purity CO2 with storage in local hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers. Deployment at a scale required to substantially reduce CO2 atmospheric concentrations, however, would rely heavily on injection into saline formations and take decades of investment to build the extensive infrastructure required to capture and transport CO2 to injection sites. The ATW gathering was a unique, timely opportunity to engage experts in an assessment of the status and best path forward for CCS. Introduction Current and projected rates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels may lead to changes in global climate with significant impact. Whereas improved energy efficiency and renewable energy will play growing roles in this century, fossil fuels will continue to meet the majority of energy needs for decades to come (IEA/OECD World Energy Outlook 2004). Even with technical advances and changes in the energy mix and its efficient use, there is an expanding gap over the present century between projected emissions and those emissions levels needed to stabilize atmospheric CO2 to desired levels (Edmonds et al., 2004).
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a geologic and engineering enterprise designed to reduce atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Extensive research links the GHG concentration in the atmosphere to the observed change in global temperature patterns (IPCC, 2013; Cox et al., 2000; Parmesean and Yohe, 2003). CCS technology could play an important role in efforts to limit the global average temperature rise to below 2 C, by removing carbon dioxide originating from fossil fuel use in power generation and industrial plants.
Does the world really want carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS)? The answer is an unequivocal “Yes,” say the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations, and many oil and gas companies, among others. The consensus is that rapid scaleup of CCUS is essential for meeting climate and emissions targets while not crippling economic growth. As much as 450 million Mt of CO2 could be captured, used, and stored globally with a commercial incentive as low as $40/Mt, according to the IEA. Yet this potential remains largely untapped. “It’s a chicken-and-egg problem,” said Dan Cole, vice president of commercial development and governmental relations at Denbury Resources. “To address the challenges, more projects need to be built, but more aren’t being built,” said•Cole. • The reasons are many. The engineering sector is trying to scale up relatively immature technologies outside of niche projects and experiencing growing pains. Uncertainty around policy and return on investment (ROI), or lack thereof, is pushing back or halting large-scale projects. Public sentiment is pushing ever harder against carbon of any type in favor of renewable energy. CCUS encompasses four interrelated areas, each of which face its own distinct technological, financial, and perceptual challenges. Capture Transportation Storage Use/Reuse Fig. 1 illustrates the CCUS process. Carbon Capture—the Least Mature Area Approximately two-thirds of the total cost of CCUS is attributed to carbon capture. Additionally, capturing and compressing CO2 is estimated to increase the cost per watt-hour of energy produced by 21–91% for fossil fuel power plants, and applying the technology to existing plants would be more expensive, especially if they are far from a sequestration site. Of all the components of the CCUS process, capture is considered the least technologically mature. Belief is widespread that optimizing a CO2 capture process would significantly increase the feasibility of CCUS because transport and storage technologies are more•mature. Capturing CO2 is most effective at point sources such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major CO2 emissions, natural gas processing, synthetic fuel plants, and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants. CO2 also can be captured directly from the air through direct air capture (DAC) rather than at a point source. Carbon dioxide can be separated out of air or flue gas with absorption, adsorption, or membrane gas separation technologies. Absorption, or carbon scrubbing, with amines is currently the dominant capture technology. Membrane and adsorption technologies are still in the developmental research and pilot plant•stages.
Deghmoum, Abdelhakim (Sonatrach/AMT/The Division of Laboratories, Boumerdes, 35000, Algeria) | Baddari, Kamel (University of M'hamed Bougara Boumerdes (UMBB)/FS/Physics Depart/LIMOSE Laboratory, Algeria)
Abstract The geological sequestration of CO2 is a relatively new technology that seems to have rapidly maturated in providing an effective process of capturing CO2 from industrial pollutant emissions and storing it securely in deep geological formations. Through this technology, the anthropogenic CO2 emissions can be reduced by 20% globally by 2050. Furthermore, it is expected that by the end of this century, more than 55% of CO2 emission can be captured and stored geologically. The compression, the transport and the injection of CO2 have been well used and controlled in the petroleum industry for many decades. However, CO2 capture process remains the weak point that should be overcome in order to make CCS economically feasible at industrial level. Moreover, no risk of leakage can occur at very long term in order to make CCS technology possible and generalized. The objective of this review is to analyze and to compare briefly the quantification of CO2 emissions in Algeria and to illustrate, with different case studies, the worldwide geological CCS pilot projects, particularly, those applied at industrial scale. The review is an attempt to assess critically what has been done and to predict what is ahead in this domain. Based on this review, the authors conclude that the global warming is the consequence of human egocentrism. CO2 should be considered as a valuable gas and not a waste, and CCS as a solution to global warming. Although there is negligible CO2 emission in Algeria, In Salah CCS project, built by BP-Statoil-Sonatrach consortium, is for demonstrating that pollution has no boundaries and every country is concerned by environmental issues. Thus, developing and developed countries should be urgently implicated in a serious and strong cooperation in the deployment of CCS technology before reaching irreversible global warming consequences.