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Recent trends in Alberta oil reserves EDITOR'S FOREWORD (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) It is nearly eight years since one of the Share of authors of thispaper last wrote on this Total Initial Enhanced Enhanced important subject for the Petroleum lnilial Average Enhanced Recovery Reserves Recoverable Recovery Recoverable Reserves Recovery Society. The costs of implementing Year Reserves Factor Reserves In Total Faclor enhanced recovery are rising, while the 106M3 (B bbls) 106M3 (B bbls) pricing outlook is subdued.
Abstract More than ten strains of bacteria were isolated from Saudi and Egyptian crude oils and formation waters. Experimental investigation was carried out to identify the bacterial isolates, determine the compositions of the appropriate nutrients, conduct surface phenomena measurements. Based on the results obtained, it was found that presence of bacteria affected the solution phase volume, interfacial tension between oil and water, rock wettability, and relative permeability characteristics. These effects depend upon the bacterial type, nutrient type and concentration, salinity, temperature, composition of the crude oil. A series of microbial displacement laboratory tests were carried out in homogeneous sandpacks and Berea sandstone cores using different types of bacterial solutions of glucose, sucrose and molasses based nutrients. The effects of nutrient type and its concentration, bacterial type, salinity, API, and permeability on oil recovery were investigated. Results show that the greatest oil recovery was obtained from activation of the indigenous bacteria by 1% molasses concentration. Some strains of bacteria were found to produce biogas, biosurfactant and biopolymers which increased oil recovery. The changes in sandpack permeability or API gravity have no effect on oil recovery. Introduction During the last ten years scientific and engineering efforts in the laboratories of King Saud University (Saudi Arabia) and Cairo University (Egypt) has established the basic start for Microbial Enhanced Oil Research technology in the Arab World. It is expected that Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) may recover up to 30% of the residual oil under the Arab reservoir conditions. The actual recovery, however can only be determined through laboratory and pilot tests under field conditions. A new technology should be developed to apply MEOR successfully. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology is the process of introducing or stimulating viable microorganisms in an oil reservoir for the purpose of enhancing oil recovery. Although several attempts have been made to describe the MEOR process, no experimental or theoretical model has yet fully incorporated all of the factors that strongly affect the mechanisms of oil displacement, growth and transport of bacteria in porous media. Many species of microorganisms produce gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane that could improve oil recovery by increasing pressure and by reducing the viscosity of the crude oil that improve the mobility ratio. Some other species produce acids that can improve permeability of the reservoir rocks thus improve oil recovery. Microorganisms produce bio-surfactant can decrease surface, and interfacial tension between oil and water, which causes emulsification. Several research studies in our Laboratory have shown, that MEOR is a potentially effective technology for increasing oil recovery through the improvements in interfacial forces, wettability characteristics, displacement tests and modeling of the process.
Energy and Mines estimated about 4 Beaufort Sea -.Mackenzie Delta, theCanada, Ontario and eastern Canada