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Takeuchi, Y. (Tohoku University) | Miyamoto, D. (Tohoku University) | Kishita, A. (Tohoku University) | Nakamura, T. (Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd.) | Moriya, T. (Tohoku Electronic Power Co., Ltd.) | Enomoto, H. (Tohoku University)
This paper was prepared for the 1974 Eastern Regional Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, to be held in Washington, D.C., Nov. 14–15, 1974. Permission to copy is restricted an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Publication elsewhere after publication in the paper was presented. Publication elsewhere after publication in the JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY or the SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS JOURNAL is usually granted upon request to the Editor of the appropriate journal provided agreement to give credit is made. Discussion of the paper is invited. Three copies of any discussion should be sent to the Society of Petroleum Engineers office. Such discussion may be presented at the above meeting and, with the paper, may be considered for publication in one of the two SPE magazines. Abstract Nuclear power has a key role to play in the U.S. energy strategy. Advanced reactors, or breeders, will be required to assure long-term energy supply. This paper will focus on the technical issues and program development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The development of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor has been given priority in the AEC's broad reactor development program. Its development involves a broad range of disciplines safety, physics, fuels and materials, instrumentation and control fuel cycle, components and systems and coolant technology. Several other breeder concepts are under study by AEC's Division of Reactor Research and Development including the Gas-Cooled-Fast Breeder Reactor, and the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. Each of these concepts offers distinct advantages and attractiveness for future use in meeting energy requirements. Fast Breeder development has been underway for over a quarter of a century. Development of a breeder reactor is a large scale undertaking involving the entire nuclear community — the AEC, national laboratories, engineering centers, universities, industrial and utility organizations. The importance of a strong research and development effort to establish the basic technology is examined in our paper. These efforts provide the foundation for confidence by the utilities in the breeder system. The effects of the world energy problem has spared few nations — causing serious economic, social, and even political difficulties. The general response to the problem has been to examine and accelerate the development of the fullest range of possible energy options - attainable in both the short and long run. While nations face many common aspects of the problem, each has its own distinct set of requirements, resources and relationships which inevitably shape the direction of its national policies and programs. U.S. energy strategy is directed toward achieving energy self-sufficiency. Among the important implications of this policy are: secondary and tertiary recovery of gas and oil; the development of new gas and petroleum resources; increased use of coal including its conversion to gas and petroleum liquid; increased utilization of nuclear power; petroleum liquid; increased utilization of nuclear power; and the development of new energy technologies. Nuclear power will be required to provide a large share of total electric energy required in the future both internally and abroad. However, our present nuclear industry, consisting primarily of light water reactors (LWR's), will eventually face serious resource limitation.
Gascon, Jorge (University of Zaragoza, Chemical & Environmental Department) | Tullez, Carlos (University of Zaragoza, Chemical & Environmental Department) | Herguido, Javier (University of Zaragoza, Chemical & Environmental Department) | Mendez, Miguel (University of Zaragoza, Chemical & Environmental Department) | Jakobsen, Hugo (NTNU)
The use of a two-zone fluidized bed reactor (TZFBR) has been proposed in previous works for several reactions, such as the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, as a new system for carrying up catalytic oxidation. Although the oxidative dehydrogenation is a reaction of clear interest, it has not been employed industrially because the achieved selectivities are not enough.
On the other hand, the oxidation of butane to maleic anhydride is already being done industrially, and therefore improvements in the process economy will result in a more competitive production. In the TZFBR two different zones appear: in one zone the catalyst is reduced, providing oxygen from the lattice during the oxidation of the hydrocarbon; in the second zone the catalyst is reoxidized with oxygen from the gas phase. By a careful selection of the operating conditions the hydrocarbon is oxidized with low or null gas phase oxygen, which can give improvements in terms of selectivity or safety. This may be an interesting alternative to the circulating fluidized bed that is being employed in some catalytic oxidations, with the reaction in a reactor and the catalyst reoxidation in another reactor. The TZFBR avoids the use of cumbersome standpipes connecting both reactors, since the two zones are located in the same vessel.
In such way two functions are made in a single reactor: the catalyst is oxidized in one zone and the hydrocarbon is oxidized, with low or null oxygen concentration in the gas phase in the other zone. The TZFBR may be advantageous in respect to the circulating fluidized bed reactor when the desired residence time of the catalyst in the reduction zone is larger than a few seconds.
Maleic anhydride (MA) has become an important chemical intermediate, finding applications in a large variety of products, from acids to surfactants. Most of the MA is utilized for the production of unsaturated polyether resins, which represents about 60 % of its total outlets.
There has been a considerable interest in the selective oxidation of n-butane since Bergman and Frisch1 disclosed that this reaction could be catalyzed by Vanadium phosphorus catalysts. The use of n-butane as a feedstock in the commercial production of maleic anhydride began in 1974 at Monsanto, using a fixed bed reactor system. By late 1985 there was no commercial manufacture of maleic anhydride in the United States by other than n- butane based processes. Currently, all new processes to obtain maleic anhydride are based on n-butane oxidation scheme. They only differ by the type of reactor used, the procedure for recovering the effluent (water versus organic quenching), and the final purification system. Packed and Fuidized bed have been the preferred reactors to develop the n-butane partial Oxidation. Fixed bed is a well known technology where improvements in selectivity are only possible by improving the catalyst and there are other drawbacks associated with the use of packed beds in the MA production, such as the hot spots formation and the dilution conditions which must be used to avoid flammability limits (maximum concentration of butane in air around 1-2%).