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Answers provided by Rune Mode Ramberg, Chief Engineer Subsea Technology & Operations, Statoil. Steve Thurston, Chevron's vice president of deepwater exploration and projects compares developing US Gulf of Mexico oil fields like Jack and St. Malo in 7,000 ft to the 1969 moon landing: "Except we are going to the moon every day!" It really is impressive to see how offshore and subsea technology have evolved over the years. Of the world's current oil demand of approximately 93 million BOPD, some 27 million BOPD or 30% comes from offshore fields and the offshore contribution is expected to continue to grow according to Douglas-Westwood World Drilling & Production Market Forecast 2005-2021. The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is among the front-runners in subsea technology developments and applications.
Steve Thurston, Chevron’s vice president of deepwater exploration and projects compares developing US Gulf of Mexico oil fields like Jack and St. Malo in 7,000 ft to the 1969 moon landing: “Except we are going to the moon every day!” It really is impressive to see how offshore and subsea technology have evolved over the years. Of the world’s current oil demand of approximately 93 million BOPD, some 27 million BOPD or 30% comes from offshore fields and the offshore contribution is expected to continue to grow according to Douglas-Westwood World Drilling & Production Market Forecast 2005-2021.
The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is among the front-runners in subsea technology developments and applications. It is like a giant “subsea and offshore 2.0 laboratory” for the rest of the offshore world.
Efficient subsea gas compression is the next challenge that the industry must face to continue subsea development. When an offshore gas field is developed 100% by a subsea development and the pressure falls because of production, compression will be needed at some point to maintain the production rate. But, there is no platform to put it on—unless you build one. What about installing subsea compression and skipping the platform altogether? Is this even possible? I posed questions to Statoil’s chief engineer in subsea technology, Rune Mode Ramberg, regarding the latest subsea compression developments on the NCS.
Abstract During the last 25 years Statoil, in cooperation with key vendors, have developed technical solutions for subsea field development resulting in more than 500 subsea wells. As part of the corporate Technology strategy Statoil has launched a technology plan for the Statoil Subsea Factory™ concept. The plan describes how to combine subsea production and processing technology elements together with key business prioritised elements such as long distance multiphase transport, floating production facilities and pipeline networks to enable cost-effective field development. In addition, subsea production and processing can enable accelerated production and increased recovery in an energy-efficient manner, and with low environmental footprint This paper provides an overview of the technologies enabling the Subsea Factory concept and the operating experience gained in assets having implemented subsea processing technologies. The paper describes the technology staircase starting with subsea boosting in the LuFeng field and the separation, produced water reinjection and fluid boosting applications at Troll Pilot and the Tordis fields. The paper describes Tyrihans raw seawater injection and summarises the gas compression technology projects underway for the Gullfaks and Åsgard fields. The plan takes account of two specific value-creation goals Statoil is targeting - namely to realise subsea compression by 2015 and a complete subsea factory by 2020. Focus on establishing a Subsea Factory concept can be explained by the desire to improve the economic value of field developments. Utilizing a system approach from reservoir to export system, combine and reuse in new ways the subsea production and processing technologies already installed or being constructed in Statoil. The processing element will enable the fluids to be treated to a level where they can be safely transported in flowlines to a downstream host, whether onshore or offshore, fixed or floating. Future generations of subsea factory may include more sophisticated processing elements. Statoil's vision is to develop and deploy all the necessary technology elements required for a " subsea factory", i.e. for the equivalent of a topsides processing facility to be operated on the seabed, enabling remote subsea to beach hydrocarbon transport solutions in any offshore location. Statoil will be " Taking subsea longer, deeper and colder" to accelerate and increase production" by implementing the Statoil Subsea Factory™. The term " Older" is also discussed in light of the potential to reuseexisting technology elements to increase recovery and maintain production at existing/brownfield facilities at the Norwegian Continental shelf. Introduction As part of the corporate Technology strategy Statoil has launched a technology plan for the Statoil Subsea Factory covering subsea production and processing technologies. The plan has been produced to support the aims of the Statoil corporate technology strategy (CTS) and the business goal of producing 2.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (BOEPD) by 2020.
Abstract As part of the corporate technology strategy Statoil has launched a technology plan for the Subsea Factory concept. The plan describes how to combine subsea production and processing technology elements with key business cases and define enabling and cost-efficient field development concepts. With the advent of moving processing facilities from topside to subsea, Statoil has made major technological advances in placing conventional processing equipment on the seabed. As of today, Statoil has successfully deployed subsea pumps and subsea separators (Troll Pilot and Tordis). Statoil is also in the process of deploying the world's first subsea compressors in 2015 (at both the Åsgard- and Gullfaks field). While there has been a gradual increase in the complexity of the subsea processing systems we have also advanced our analytical and modelling approach to subsea processing concept evaluation and selection. In our recent concept evaluation we have used an integrated modelling approach, in which subsea processing options are directly linked to reservoir models, flow lines and surface facilities. This enables us to see value added in terms of increased reservoir productivity, but also overview of entire system behavior from reservoir to the topside, throughout the expected field life. The cost level within subsea has increased by a factor 2.5 over the last 10-12 years. Statoil aims at establishing a Business Agreed Standardization on subsea processing interfaces and modules. This standardization strategy will allow suppliers to compete within modules/technology elements, but standardize on module size and open interfaces to achieve plug-and-play functionality The goal is to reduce costs and improve competitiveness of subsea solutions: More profitable subsea developments Increased subsea processing volume Statoil believes that alignment with the other operators is vital to succeed in establishing a global, open standard. Standardization enabling cost reduction through simplification More profitable subsea developments Increased subsea processing volume (? win-win-solution for the O&G industry) The paper describes the ongoing work to achieve standardization of the Brownfield Subsea Factory with focus on near infrastructure solutions of existing fields. Subsea boosting and compression are important technologies enabling extended lifetime and increased recovery of mature subsea fields. In the paper several business cases will be described.
The paper reviews the way leading up to the Subsea Factory Compressor Stations with focus on important technology step-stones and breakthroughs. A dedicated and long term focus on technology development through R&D has been carried out within a series of disciplines supporting the subsea production application. The development has been along two important axis; multiphase flow and subsea systems. A comprehensive R&D effort was initiated in the beginning of the eighties resulting in a highly successful and profitable development and implementation on the Norwegian continental shelf, namely the subsea industry. Through a series of successful tie-backs and long distance multiphase flow lines, the ultimate concept was achieved for gas-condensate systems represented by the unprocessed transportation of well stream directly to shore. The first multiphase pumps were installed in the late -90 and in 2000 the first subsea separation station was started up. Today subsea boosting and separation is proven technology. In 2011, building the first subsea gas compression station was initiated, taken the last step to a full subsea factory installation. To realise subsea compression, the main components have been subject to a systematic technology qualification process. The paper describes how Statoil's large scale laboratory facilities has been mandatory for full scale qualification testing as well as focus on quality to achieve the necessary level of confidence. The Subsea Compression projects solely, have carried out nearly 60 qualification activities, further detailed in the paper. The paper also looks forward and point out that the subsea processing solutions that have been qualified and implemented can be utilized to achieve cost efficient solutions with low environmental footprint.