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Beginning in the latter portion of the 20th Century and continuing into this century, our society has witnessed the growth in the production and use of portable electronic devices. This includes equipment and tools that are used within the workplace (e.g., cordless tools, cell phones, tablet/slate computers, e-readers, and more). The demand for these portable devices continues to grow. This demand triggers the need for the batteries powering these devices to be more powerful, longer lasting, and able to work in more environments.
Lithium batteries have quickly become the battery of choice for just about every type of portable electronic device. Lithium batteries have become the most common battery type to fulfill these demands. This, in part, is due to the unique characteristics of this battery type’s chemistry. Lithium batteries have the highest energy level (i.e. energy/unit weight and energy/unit volume). Also, due to the absence of water, the batteries have a fairly large operating temperature range (e.g., ≥ -55°C and ≤ 150°C).
Like other batteries, there are similar hazards that must be addressed from a SHE perspective. However, due to their unique properties, lithium batteries are subject to hazardous materials transportation, environmental, and workplace safety regulations. This adds to the challenge of proper management-use/handling, storage, disposal, and transportation.
Whether a company ships a finished product or component that contains a lithium cell or battery or employees use or travel with equipment containing lithium batteries, there are specific regulations that apply to their use, handling, transportation, and disposal. In all of these situations, safety, health and environment (SH&E) managers are on the front line. They must assess each activity and assure each is done in compliance with the latest requirements.
What’s more, technology is changing quicker than our regulations can keep up. As more is learned about the risks, new or revised regulations seem to come out monthly. The SH&E manager must be aware of pending changes and assist their organization commit resources to meet new obligations without unnecessary delay or cost.
Historically, lithium batteries have been a known safety hazard in the downhole industry. The electrolyte used in these batteries is highly corrosive and the lithium metal is highly flammable. Mishandling these batteries can result in serious injuries or even fatalities. Exposure to hazardous chemicals can occur if a battery has leaked, vented, or exploded. Most notably, thermal runaway events and battery explosions caused by user error or by harsh environmental conditions have been known to lead to casualties, some very serious in nature.
Yoshida, Hiroshi (Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Yokosuka, Japan) | Hyakudome, Tadahiro (Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Yokosuka, Japan) | Aoki, Taro (Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Yokosuka, Japan) | Fujiya, Naoko (ENAX, Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) | Konno, Shinichi (ENAX, Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) | Oomiya, Masato (ENAX, Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) | Ozawa, Kazunori (ENAX, Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan)
JAMSTEC aims to develop a long cruising range AUV (LCAUV) which equipped with a hybrid power source to travel over 1000 km. A PEFC system and a lithium-ion battery system are considered as the hybrid power source. The both system will be downsized to make the LCAUV smaller. In this article we describe the high energy type lithium-ion battery system under development. The battery system for the underwater vehicle consists of three major parts: a lithium-ion battery cell-assembly, a pressure-balanced case, and a battery manager. The cell-assembly is composed of sheet-type sealed battery cells and a chassis. The seal method for 110 MPa pressure-tight has been jointly developed by JAMSTEC and ENAX. The manager is needed for battery charge and discharge process management particularly when the vehicle equipped with the battery system is deployed. We have already achieved a high energy lithium-ion battery cell which energy density is about 300 Wh/liter by the addition of nickel compound into its cathode. To enhance this performance we now try to modify its anode material and configuration.
In recent years, deep-sea research becomes important to assess environmental problems including global warming since oceans cover 70 % of the Earth’s surface. Survey and mining of natural resources in the region of deep-sea and seabed are also needed to keep lasting economic growth. Until now, we have, however, held survey of a tiny percent of entire oceans because of deep-sea-bound. Human occupied vehicles (HOVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are widely used for deep-sea research since 1980s (Doyle, 1995). The evolution of electrical and electronic engineering technology over the last decade has led to improvement in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) development. The advantages of AUV utilization are reducing operation cost because of support ship less, and enabling them to go where HOVs or ROVs have trouble reaching.
Leijon, Jennifer (Uppsala University) | Anttila, Sara (Uppsala University) | Frost, Anna E. (Uppsala University) | Kontos, Sofia (Uppsala University) | Lindahl, Olof (Uppsala University) | Engström, Jens (Uppsala University) | Leijon, Mats (Uppsala University) | Boström, Cecilia (Uppsala University)
To our knowledge, this paper represents an initial study of a novel concept in freshwater and lithium extraction from desalination powered off-grid by marine renewable energy sources. The project’s background is interest in the local supply of lithium for the growing numbers of electric vehicles. The desalination technologies investigated are reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The collocation of the marine resources, possibly available and future technical solutions, and demands for freshwater and lithium suggest that the proposed system could be interesting to study further.
While there are rechargeable batteries rated to 125ºC, many service companies prefer not to use them because a rating of 150ºC is preferable. The industry typically uses one-time-use lithium primary batteries. According to Robert Estes, manager of emerging technology at Baker Hughes, lithium batteries have been used in the oil field for 30 years or more and they are now fairly reliable up to somewhat above 150ºC. However, he said, "lithium metal melts at around 180ºC. So if you go much above 150ºC with a standard lithium thionyl chloride one-time-use primary cell, then you risk getting the temperature externally as well as the internal temperature of the battery to the point where it will melt the lithium metal. And that can be a risk factor."