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As in automotive, the use of lithium-ion batteries onboard vessels is increasing rapidly. Whether in hybrid or all-electric mode, the technology makes possible significant to even game-changing reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. However, as their use increases, so too will negative impacts both before installation on the ship and after removal. At the front end, this paper will explore the abundance of the raw materials, their mining and related ecological and societal concerns. At the back end, reuse markets and recycling will be covered including cost drivers and emissions. Recycling will examine the methods and their efficiencies, module disassembly problems and neutralization of remaining charge. The paper will close with environmental risks in disposal.
Leijon, Jennifer (Uppsala University) | Anttila, Sara (Uppsala University) | Frost, Anna E. (Uppsala University) | Kontos, Sofia (Uppsala University) | Lindahl, Olof (Uppsala University) | Engström, Jens (Uppsala University) | Leijon, Mats (Uppsala University) | Boström, Cecilia (Uppsala University)
To our knowledge, this paper represents an initial study of a novel concept in freshwater and lithium extraction from desalination powered off-grid by marine renewable energy sources. The project’s background is interest in the local supply of lithium for the growing numbers of electric vehicles. The desalination technologies investigated are reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The collocation of the marine resources, possibly available and future technical solutions, and demands for freshwater and lithium suggest that the proposed system could be interesting to study further.
Energy storage technologies on the horizon could fundamentally improve plug-in hybrid vessel operation. The life of a vessel is typically much longer than a passenger or heavy-duty vehicle. An investment now in such ship technology might be expected to see substantial improvements in life cycle costs. The typical application would require periodic replacement of battery packs which would allow for technology improvements to be enjoyed. Technologies both current, near-term and further out hold promise. The potential energy density increases could fundamentally change the usage model. Operational aspects, utility costs, vessel types and route characteristics play a role in the equation.
This paper will investigate optimizing the payback of lithium-ion batteries for passenger vessels. Factors considered regarding the lithium-ion battery technology will include depth of discharge, charge and discharge rates, cycle life, effective cost, effective life cycle cost, and energy density. The cost of shore-side electricity also plays a huge role. Other factors analyzed include the price of diesel and the discount rate. Payback will be analyzed for the three lithium-ion battery chemistries found in the marine sphere: lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium titanium oxide (LTO).
The paper will also investigate the two options for all-electric operation. One is a true "all-electric" without installed diesel engines for backup propulsion power. The other is a plug-in hybrid electric vessel (PHEV) has enough battery power to make zero-emissions crossing but with backup power in the form of diesel gen-sets. The above drivers for payback and specific operational and emergency response requirements for the route will be explored in relationship to this decision.
Abstract With new battery technologies available and impending emissions control areas (ECA) in the US continental shelf, and NOx enforcement mechanisms in the North Sea and elsewhere, there is a need to reduce emissions and improve efficiency of oil and gas exploration and production. It has been stated that ECA regulations will require NOx reductions by 80% by 2020. This reduction can be achieved in part with hybrid power systems. In addition, the movement toward subsea systems will introduce new power requirements. Transmission to ultra deepwater assets will be costly, and a need to downsize transmission lines and cables can be met with subsea battery systems which buffer transients and reduce the maximum capacity for cables. The challenge that the oil and gas industry faces is to decide when and where hybrid power systems provide the most value for operations, how they should be implemented, what technologies are acceptable, what safety considerations there may be, and how these technologies can improve the bottom line. There is a wealth of information on lithium ion batteries though it is not all consistent; cost data is unclear, lifetime and energy density considerations vary under different conditions, and ruggedness and application to harsh environments is a large uncertainty.