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Abstract The Tourmaline Oil Corporation's light oil play (The Field) utilizes electrical submersible pumps (ESP's) for the dewatering and initial production (IP) phase. Sucker rod pumps are then used as the main artificial lift technology to produce The Field. The typical procedure is to convert these wells to pump and rods after the first ESP failure or after the well ceases to flow naturally. Constant changing of the lift systems on each well incurs costs, requires manpower and creates exposure with the need for surface facilities work. The recent economic downturn applied focus on reducing costs while optimizing production. A single wellhead that could accommodate flowing wells, ESP's, rod pumps and gas lift without the need to change the flowline configuration would save money and minimize production downtime. To develop this technology Tourmaline collaborated with industry leaders in wellhead penetration and rod pumping blow out preventers (BOP's) to design and engineer such a wellhead. The multi-function BOP will master ESP, rod pumps, natural flow and gas lift. After the multi-function BOP development was complete it was trialed in a controlled environment then installed on multiple wells within The Field. The product developed consists of combination tubing hanger and production wellhead. The multi-function wellhead includes dual master valves, dual rod BOP's, ESP capillary feed-through and gas lift capabilities with two flowline outlets. The final product is only thirty one and a half inches in height, making it compact, and operationally ergonomic. There have also been efficiencies realized from this wellhead including modular wellhead skids, downhole artificial lift combination deployment and reduced servicing costs. The surface conversion costs have been reduced by 95%. Due to the unconventional well flowing regimes and artificial lift practices Tourmaline Oil faces in The Field the need for new technology was identified. By teaming up with industry leaders an innovative and unique multif-function BOP wellhead was developed. The product has been installed throughout The Field with great success and has inspired other advancements in oil field efficiency.
Coggan, J.S. (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter) | Chilton, J.L. (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter) | Stead, D. (Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University) | Howe, J.H. (IMERYS Minerals Ltd) | Collins, R. (SLR Consulting Ltd.)
The engineering characterization of altered granites through the processes of kaolinisation is critical for effective extraction and design of slopes for the china clay industry in south-west England. As part of on-going research into the engineering behaviour of variably kaolinised granites a series of instrumented uniaxial compression tests were performed on representative samples taken from a varying decomposition grade range of altered granite. Analysis of acoustic emission (AE) and strain gauge deformation measurements, together with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images taken at various stages of failure, were used to characterize the fracture development and damage processes occurring during uniaxial compression. The results of the testing confirm that the degree of alteration or kaolinisation and associated changes in mineralogy of the granite is directly related to reduction in both uniaxial compressive strength and porosity. The assessment of strength and alteration grade is a fundamental component of geotechnical characterization of slopes in altered granite.
A consequence of implementation of the Quarries Regulations 1999, for the United Kingdom quarrying industry, has been a need to identify potential hazards in order to initiate, if required, more detailed geotechnical assessment of critical slopes that are deemed to pose a significant hazard to either persons or property. Hazard identification within the china clay industry requires appropriate characterization of altered or kaolinised granite. Stead et al. (2000) provided a review of the approaches to engineering characterization of altered granites, taking into account the previous work undertaken in south-west England and, in particular, Hong Kong. Characterization of altered granites usually involves categorization into classes, zones or grades according to readily recognized or simply measured variations in their characteristics. This paper presents the results of an on-going investigation into factors controlling the engineering behaviour of altered granites.
Abstract The Bird's Head area of New Guinea is underlain by Australian continental crust and has relatively complete Palaeozoic to Recent stratigraphic record. One of the siliciclastic formations of the Bird's Head is the Tipuma Formation. Its age has been estimated as Triassic to Jurassic and is a potentially important hydrocarbon reservoir. New fieldwork was carried out, complemented by analysis of light and heavy minerals, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and quartz CL luminescence study. The Tipuma Formation was previously dated only by its stratigraphic position and was suggested to have been deposited in a continental passive margin. This study shows sandstones and conglomerates were sourced from acid volcanic, metamorphic, and recycled sedimentary rocks to the north, and from the North Australian Craton. Cathodoluminescence study on detrital quartz supports the importance of the important of volcanic quartz. The quartz provenance of sandstones from the Lower, Middle and Upper Members of the Tipuma Formation are dominated by low-T metamorphic and volcanic with little plutonic origin and there is some variation with stratigraphic position and in the Middle Member the abundance of volcanic quartz declines. The youngest zircon ages indicate it was deposited in the Triassic. Permo-Triassic (205–275 Ma), Neoproterozoic (c. 975 Ma), Early Mesoproterozoic (1.4–1.6 Ga), and Paleoproterozoic (1.8–2.0 Ga) populations, with a few grains of Archaean age (2.8–3.2 Ga) characterized most Tipuma Formation sandstones. The Tipuma Formation was probably not deposited in a simple continental block setting and was influenced by volcanic activity in the Bird's Head during its deposition. The long-lived Palaeozoic volcanic activity interpreted to indicate subduction of the palaeo-Pacific oceanic plate under the Australian continent associated with an Andean-type active margin. The decline of the abundance of volcanic quartz, Permo-Triassic zircons, and increase in Carboniferous and Proterozoic zircons within the Middle Member indicate a reduced contribution of sediment from the arc and an increased contribution of sediment from northern Australia. Introduction The Bird's Head of West Papua (Figure 1) is located in the western part of New Guinea and is surrounded by active or recently active tectonic zones, where three of the Earth's major tectonic plates, the Eurasian, Indian-Australian and Pacific Plates (with Philippine Sea and Caroline sub-plates) converge. Relative to the Eurasian plate the Indo-Australian plate is currently moving NNE, and the Pacific plate is moving WNW. The Tipuma Formation of the Bird's Head of New Guinea, Indonesia is a potentially important reservoir. This siliciclastic sequence has therefore been one of the main objectives for oil and gas drilling since the early 70's. However, its unfossiliferous character makes it difficult to determine its true age. There is not much information about the composition of the formation or variations in lithologies and no research has been carried out concerning its provenance prior to this study.
The compounds of boron that are known as borides are with several of its properties listed below. They yield energy on combination with oxygen Atomic weight 10.81 TO PULSED NEUTRON LOGGING METHODS elemental form, boron is used primarily in the metal industry. It has been well established in the numerous literatures if added to aluminum it improves electrical conductivity. Each C - value can be affected by the presence of the trace element Boron (B). Germany, a B - content as high as 95 ppm has been reported.