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The issue of water needs for shale resource development has largely focused on public concern about possible constraints on water supplies, particularly in areas suffering from drought. A new study suggests that without technological breakthroughs or changes in how the oil and gas industry manage water, development of shale production could be hampered in areas with the largest estimated reserves. Some cities in the United States suffering from drought have imposed bans on hydraulic fracturing, even though oil and gas industry water use compares favorably with that of other industries (see Beyond the Headlines, July 2014 JPT, p. 20). The new report issued by the World Resources Institute, titled "Global Shale Development: Water Availability and Business Risk," focuses not on public concerns, but energy company risk instead. It contends that water-availability challenges could limit shale resource development on six continents, including in areas with some of the greatest potential for shale production. The report's executive summary looks at three countries in particular and assesses the potential water challenges.