|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
This reference is for an abstract only. A full paper was not submitted for this conference. The natural gas industry is undergoing significant fundamental changes as it transitions from a regional to global market. The United States hashistorically had limited interaction with the rest of the world in importing natural gas, due to sizeable North America reserves. However, as large gas producing fields mature and decline in production, while the demand for clean fuels for power generation grows, US imports outside of North America are expected to increase dramatically. Current gas imports are primarily via pipeline from Canada, however, in the future, the US is expected to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) from many parts of the world. Similarly, with growing gas demands Europe and Asia dependence on imported gas is expected to grow significantly. This will require investment in new pipeline projects to increase transit capacity for gas across adjacent regions. Also, import needs are driving huge LNG supply projects in Africa, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. Security of gas supplies is increasingly a focus area for governments of these regions. LNG will increase linkages for natural gas around the world. Will the desired gas supply security be achieved? In this presentation of ExxonMobil's "Industry Gas Outlook", we will review the recent growth of the natural gas industry for historical context, where we are today, and the exciting challenges the global gas industry faces to find and deliver needed supplies.
Technology Focus In 2010, natural-gas reserves were approximately equivalent to 75% of the oil reserves (including oil sands). Unconventional gas sources continue to make up an increasingly important part of the natural-gas supply, particularly shale gas and coal-bed methane (CBM), which contribute approximately 40% to US natural-gas reserves. Generally, very remote offshore gas reserves cannot be exploited economically by use of fixed subsea pipelines that tend to link the field with a specific geographical market. Operators can maximize market reach through natural-gas liquefaction and improved marine liquefied-natural-gas (LNG) tankers. For ultimate flexibility, four floating LNG-production facilities are predicted to come on stream within this decade. Commercial exploitation of the known massive hydrate reserves probably is some time off; however, the chemistry research involved in hydrate management for current natural-gas production may accelerate progress in that area. Hydraulic-water reuse is key to the future of the CBM and shale-gas industries. There are many opportunities to learn about and share natural-gas technologies. An SPE workshop, “Reducing Environmental Impact of Unconventional Resources Development,” will take place in San Antonio, Texas, 23–25 April 2012. A joint SPE/SEG workshop, “Injection Induced Seismicity,” will be held in Broomfield, Colorado, 12–14 September 2012. There will be an SPE “Tight Gas” workshop in Adelaide, Australia, 10–13 June 2012, and the SPE Unconventional Reservoir Technical Interest Group (TIG) provides a useful information exchange, as does the Gas Technology TIG. The 2013 SPE Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition will be held in Muscat, Oman, 28–30 January. The 2013 SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry to be held in The Woodlands, Texas, 9–13 April, includes topics on gas-processing chemical applications. Acid-gas (CO2 and H2S) removal from natural gas and sequestration/recovery/disposal technologies are very important in exploitation of poorer-quality gas finds. Much work continues in this area, and very large acid-gas-removal units are in operation or are planned for the Arabian Gulf region. Recommended additional reading at OnePetro: www.onepetro.org. IPTC 15208 World’s First Demonstration Project of Natural Gas Hydrate Land Transportation by Tomonori Nogami, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding, et al. IPTC 14206 International LNG Prospects: 2011 and Beyond by Chau Tran, University of Houston, et al. SPE 143019 Underground Natural-Gas Storage in the UK: Business Feasibility Case Study by Esther Escobar, University of Aberdeen, et al.
Abstract. At present the China natural gas industry has significant development. The accumulated proved gas reserves are 1124.57 G m3, the accumulated proved solution gas reserves are 826.64 G m3 up to 1995. The production of natural gas in China is 16.13 G m3. The approach for developing China's natural gas industry is as follows: - Strengthen exploration Enhance deep formation exploration in old fields in eastern areas in China. Expand exploration in central and western areas such as Shichuan, Shanganning, Qinghai and Xinjiang. Speed up exploitation of Shanganning gas fields and Shichuan gas fields Speed up exploitation of Xingiang condensate field Expand usage of natural gas for residences gradually Apply natural gas for automobile properly Use natural gas for power generation in order to reduce pollution in some areas if conditions allow. - Speed up exploitation - Utilization of natural gas - Develop petrochemical industry and produce fertilizer and methyl alcohol. The tentative plan to develop the China natural gas industry Stabilize crude oil production while speeding up development of natural gas - Insist on the policy of ‘equally emphasizing oil and gas’ - Strengthen regional cooperation In the meantime enhance the exploitation of domestic natural gas, strengthen the cooperation with Middle Asia, Russia and surrounding countries - Establish a natural gas transportation network Make an overall plan of a gas transportation network considering both domestic resource and resource from the surrounding countries. The gas transportation network will be a flexible and reliable system linked to many gas fields and consumers. I NT R O D U CTI O N China is a country that began utilization of natural gas long ago in history. Since 1949, the Chinese natural gas industry has been greatly improved. In addition to Sichuan gas fields, some oil fields, such as Daqing and Shengli, can also produce a large volume of associated gas. Even so, since the natural gas industry of China was established on a weak base, the natural gas is still in the initial stage in energy consumption, and the natural gas development and facility construction often lag behind because of the lack of gathering, transportation and storage facilities which limits the development and utilization of natural gas and the requirement that the gas production must keep pace with the downstream construction. Because all the gas fields discovered so far are not located in or near the gas market, the conditions of gas gathering, transportation and storage have to be considered first sufficiently. The gas fields discovered so far produce both pure gas and condensate, and as a result, light hydrocarbons, in addition to methane, should also be utilized because they can be used not only as high-quality fuel but also as important chemical raw materials. M
Abstract Natural gas is a versatile form of non-polluting fuel. With just over a dozen nations accounting for 84% of the world-wide production, access to natural gas has become a significant factor in international economics and politics. The major difficulty in the use of natural gas is transportation and storage because of its low density. Despite this, natural gas production has seen tremendous growth over the years. This has been due to large amount of natural gas reserves, the wide variety of uses of natural gas and carbon dioxide emissions from natural gas energy generation are far less. In the past, the natural gas recovered in the course of producing petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply flared. This wasteful practice is now illegal in many countries. The most common method for transporting natural gas was high pressure in underground pipelines. Additionally, countries now recognize that value for the gas may be achieved with LNG, CNG, or other transportation methods to end-users in the future. In many cases the gas is now re-injected back into the formation for later recovery. Transportation is now a very important and key role in the supply chain for natural gas and the big challenge is to transport gas to markets at the lowest cost without too much environmental risks. Now re-gasification at the market is important when selecting the mode of transportation of natural gas. This paper reviews, analyzes and provide insight to present and future gas transportation methods. These options of transporting gas from oil and gas field to markets include pipelines, liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, gas to solids (hydrate), gas to liquids, gas to wire and other gas to commodity methods. The paper provides an overview of the challenges facing present transportation modes, and discussion on possibilities for improvement via new technology or new gas transport options. Another focus of the paper is to compare and highlight some critical factors affecting the different means of transportation of natural gas. These include economics, markets, gas concentrations, environmental risks and re-gasification issues. Introduction The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well will have to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. Transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage, as well; should the natural gas being transported not be required at that time, it can be put into storage facilities for when it is needed. The factors affecting the type of gas transportation used include gas reserves, time frame to monetize the gas, the distances to the markets, investments and infrastructure available and gas processing. Stricter environmental laws' including the prevention of flaring gas has now pushed for ways to monetize associated gas. The possible ways of transporting natural gas to markets are pipelines, liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, gas to solids (hydrate), gas to liquids, gas to wire and other gas to commodity methods. Table 1 shows the stages of the different gas transportation methods. Gas reserves (2005) are in the range of 6500 tcf but what is extremely significant is the 40% or 2500 tcf that is considered stranded gas. These small pockets of gas reserves are found mainly in Russia, Qatar, Australia, Alaska and Trinidad (Fleisch). There is normally a large amount of associated gas that is re-injected or flared however nowadays many countries have banned the flaring of natural gas in large quantities. There is therefore a thrust for economic ways of transported stranded gas.
Abstract: The role of natural gas as a primary energy source globally is growing rapidly. Over the fiveyear period through 2005, the use of natural gas as primary feedstock for the manufacture of chemicals and petrochemicals is also expected to make some rapid advances. Resource availability, cost and environmental considerations all indicate strong reliance on natural gas in industrial applications and electricity generation. Natural gas is also replacing other traditional fuels in residential, commercial and transportation end uses as well. Therefore natural gas offers the unique opportunity of making a significant contribution to the global program to reduce reliance on high carbon content fuels and thus facilitate compliance to international agreements. The study will therefore be useful to marketing managers, strategic planners, forecasters, new product and business developers, decision makers in the chemical, petroleum and energy industries as well as government agencies, venture capitalists, and those involved in research and development work worldwide. This paper assesses and evaluates the global demand and utilization of natural gas in the chemical and energy production markets as well as the near term options for its production to meet the forecasted demand. The global marketed supply of natural gas is presented and production of natural gas by region/country, by source (offshore and onshore) and the reserves/production ratio is also discussed. International aspects of natural gas demand are also considered in this paper including forecasts for the 2005-2025 time frame. The effects of foreign and U.S. investment and technology by country and/or region are quantified. Major overseas companies involved in the natural gas business in processing, delivery and other activities are also assessed. INTRODUCTION This paper begins with an overview of the natural gas industry. The overview describes the importance of the natural gas industry in relation to the overall global economy including a brief history and important indications for the industry. The study then goes on to analyze the structure of the natural gas industry and competitive aspects including the driving forces of the industry. Important strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. Trade practices of the natural gas industry and the impact of natural gas on the petroleum and power industries are discussed. This study also includes projections for natural gas production. The largest increase in production is projected for the Middle East—from 8.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2001 to 18.8 Tcf in 2025. The smallest increase is projected for the industrialized countries—from 39.3 trillion cubic feet(Tcf) in 2001 to 46.8 Tcf in 2025, an average increase of 0.7 percent per year over the forecast period. Natural gas processing is increasingly becoming a major part of the world natural gas business, as more countries with associated gas look for more economic ways of monetising this resource. This study also presents data on global natural demand by type of processing including natural gas liquids. Some interesting figures of global natural gas reserves and global/regional natural gas consumption are also included in the end of this paper.