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As a developing or underdeveloped country, a Nation backward in scientific and technological innovations, how can renewable and unconventional energies bridge the gap or ameliorate losses from oil and Gas energy derivatives? Globally, can renewable and unconventional sources of energy fittingly serve as an alternative or bridge the shortfall from conventional sources like coal, oil and gas? Though clean, green alternative energy is teeming all around the world – Solar, wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, tidal, wave power to mention a few. This paper evaluates the potentials of renewable and unconventional energies as an alternative source to oil and gas in Nigeria. It further examines the preparedness and capabilities of Nigeria to develop these energies in the face of her scientific and technological state. Granted that Nigeria is backward in science and technology, with concerted efforts and enabling government policies, technological breakthrough is achievable. It is incontrovertible that Nigeria has abundant human and natural resources. Her diverse people and huge population have produced talented professionals, excelling in other parts of the world. What the nation requires as a lunch-pad are sound management and government policies that are pragmatic, motivating, invigorating, strong in purpose and discipline. The natural resources are visible all over the place in Nigeria. The non-renewable and conventional energies which have been the main stay of Nigeria's economy are in crisis. What other choice does the nation have? The renewable and unconventional energies like Solar, Wind, Hydroelectric, Piezoelectric, Helioculture, Salt water power, ocean thermal energy conversion, Human sewage, Hot rock power, Evaporative energy, vortex induced vibrations, Mining the moon and even space-based solar power are begging to be harnessed. How prepared are we as a Nation to develop these renewable energies? The level of preparedness for scientific and technological development is still very low. Research and production are still at minimal level. Budgets for scientific research over the years have been an aberration. The will and zeal to innovate appears to be absent. The paper concludes that there is real energy crisis in Nigeria and the world generally and there is a wakeup call to this militating economic cancer. The paper recommended that renewable and unconventional energy sources should be explored and assiduously exploited as a panacea for the declining conventional energy sources.
Energy demand is expected to grow this century as more countries seek a better quality of life for their citizens. The growth in energy demand will be met by a global energy mix that is undergoing a transition from an energy portfolio dominated by fossil fuels to an energy portfolio that includes a range of fuel types and energy conservation measures. This paper describes an Energy Engineering course for undergraduates that will increase the quality and quantity of engineering graduates as they embark on careers in the public sector and the emerging energy industry.
Energy demand is expected to grow this century as more countries seek a better quality of life for their citizens. The energy demand will be met by a global energy mix that is undergoing a transition from an energy portfolio dominated by fossil fuels to an energy portfolio that includes a range of fuel types. Fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil and gas) were the fuel of choice during the last half of the 20th century. The 21st century will see a gradual transition from the dominance of fossil fuels in the current energy mix to an energy mix with a more balanced distribution of energy options. The goal of the transition is sustainable development: the integration of social and environmental concerns into a development plan that optimizes economic profitability and value creation as the world undergoes the transition from non-renewable fossil fuels to renewable fuels and a sustainable, secure energy infrastructure. This paper describes a 1 semester, 3-credit hour Energy Engineering course for undergraduates that will increase the quality and quantity of engineering graduates as they embark on careers in the public sector and the emerging energy industry.
The literature contains several sources, such as References 1 through 10, that present a description of the energy sources that are available or are expected to be available during the 21st century. Several different energy options that should be discussed in an Energy Engineering course have been described previously10. They include fossil fuels; conventional and non-conventional sources of natural gas; nuclear fission and fusion; active and passive solar energy; renewable fuels such as hydroelectric, wind, synfuels and biomass; energy derived from waves and tides; geothermal energy; energy derived from hydrogen; and cogeneration.
Several energy forecasts have appeared in the recent literature11,13-18. Even though the assumptions, methodologies and results presented in each of these predictions are debatable, they all show an energy infrastructure in transition. The trend in the 20th century was a move away from fuels with many carbon atoms to fuels with few or no carbon atoms, a "decarbonization" process discussed by Ford11 and Ausubel12. Ausubel defines decarbonization as "the progressive reduction in the amount of carbon used to produce a given amount of energy" (pg. 18).
The goal of sustainable development is to integrate social and environmental concerns into a development plan that optimizes economic profitability and value creation. One industry response to environmental and social concerns in the context of sustainable development19 is the ‘triple bottom line'. The three components of sustainable development, and the three goals of the triple bottom line (TBL) are economic prosperity, social equity, and environmental protection. The focus of TBL is the creation of long-term shareholder value by recognizing that corporations are dependent on licenses provided by society to do business.
Large ground has been covered in literature and in public policy debate about role of energy in sustainable development and climate change. The issues of energy supply security, energy access and affordability, improving energy efficiency and managing demand, while de-carbonizing the energy sector, have brought focus on coherent and predictable energy policy, stable regulatory and legal framework for long term investment and innovation. Amidst plethora of objectives being advocated, this paper argues that securing energy equity stands at the front-end of national objectives, particularly for developing countries. Energy equity has been defined as having accessibility and affordability of energy supply across the population. Irrespective of the quantum of energy supply and consumption trend in a developing country, the lack of access to adequate and affordable energy contributes to and is supported by poverty. People who lack access to cleaner and affordable energy are often trapped in a reinforcing cycle of deprivation. This paper hypothesizes that energy equity has to be the frontline objective, with following parts.
The paper analyzes the facts and data regarding competitiveness of renewable energy use based on economics and environmental factors, showing how the cost relationships could change in the future, which would result in more competitive overall cost of producing and distributing energy.
Environmental cost concerns support a major reduction of fossil fuels and substitution of favored "nonpolluting?? energies. The energy industry nearly spends as much on environmental protection as it spends searching for new supplies; roughly $10 billion a year (U.S. DOE). So far, the penetration of renewable energies into market has been slow, providing about 10% of total U.S. electricity use, principally by their higher cost relative to fossil energy.
Wind and solar power are the two energy sources most favored to displace fossil fuels to help protect environment, thus reducing compliance cost. The costs of solar and wind power systems have dropped substantially in the past 3 decades and continue to decline. Wind costs have declined from around US$0.20 per kWh to US$0.05 per kWh in favorable locations. Solar thermal facilities are operating effectively in virtually any climate, from facilities in "resource deficient regions?? to water heating in the US (saving upto 300,000 GWh yearly). An added benefit of renewable energy projects is significant local economic activity, especially to "resource deficient regions?? of world. For example, ethanol production not only offsets million of oil barrels, the associated crop production helps to create over $10 billion annually for investment into agricultural sector, thus revitalizing rural areas. While looking at unconventional energy, the paper also compares sustainability of some low-cost advanced technologies, estimated to increase "tertiary oil recovery?? by millions of barrels by 2015 and beyond using various enhanced oil recovery techniques.
It is estimated that by 2030, the renewable energy capital cost per KW would be reduced by 5 to 10 times of the recent costs. The emphasis is to demonstrate the competitiveness of unconventional energy based on cost equivalence data in terms of millions of barrels of oil saved and hence its sustainability comparing to "conventional?? sources.
Cervantes Bravo, Reynaldo José (Consultant) | Jimenez Nieves, Edgar (Consultant) | Valqui Ordoñez, Brayam (Penn State University) | Canto Espinoza, Daniel (Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería/Facultad de Ing. de Petróleo, Gas Natural y Petroquímica) | Hinostroza Cairo, Anderson (Consultant)
The most important transition of the energy matrix in Peru was characterized by an economic bonanza between the years 2009 - 2011 and, whose energy intensity (I.E) was reflected by the accelerated growth of the GDP; which, caused an exponential increase in the energy demand of Peru and, whose multiplying effect was produced by the energy exchange of the predominance of Hydroelectric Energy towards the development of Natural Gas with the Camisea Gas Megaproject, however, it was not considered the impact of other factors. In this sense, the present study requires contextualizing the Energy Trilemma: 1) the country's energy security; through an energy efficiency policy in response to meeting demand in line with GDP growth, 2) energy equity, for the access of quality energy and accessible prices to more vulnerable populations with a diversified energy matrix; 3) environmental sustainability, to describe the Environmental Commitments of Peru with the COP24. The methodology is based on a macroeconomic-energetic model, whose architecture begins with historical information between the years 1970-2016 with respect to GDP vs. primary energy consumption; to then calculate the annual energy intensity of Peru and its CO2 emission according to the polluting factor of each primary matter. Followed, using projections of the GDP from 2017 to the year 2035 (3.8% per year - Conservative case with information from the World Bank) and 3 scenarios of decrease in energy intensity of 1%, 1.5% and 2% per year, may increase energy efficiency and reduce the emission of CO2 in the proportion of 10.4%, 15.2% and 19.6% respectively between 2017-2035. As a result, the total energy consumption will be estimated up to the year 2035 in Millions of TOE, according to each scenario of variation in energy intensity (ΔI.