Imbazi, Oyeintonbra (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Ugoh, Oluwatobi (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Okoloma, Emmanuel (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Osuagwu, Micheal (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Enyioko, Chigoziem (Halliburton) | Ighavini, Emmanuel (Halliburton) | Uzodinma, Chioma (Halliburton)
Well 01 and Well 02 are part of the phase 1-6 project that involved the development of six wells with the potential to deliver an additional 70% production increase to the LNG export market. The sand face for both wells was drilled with 0.72psi/ft pseudo oil-based mud (POBM). After the initial well clean-up, both wells produced sub-optimally (~20% of estimated potential) with relatively high drawdown (ranging from 500psi – 1000psi). This low production was suspected to be because of downhole (screen and formation) impairment or partial opening of the formation isolation valves (FIV).
A restoration team was set up with a responsibility to proffer a robust well intervention execution plan and select the most potent barite dissolver. Nine stimulation chemicals were tested and based on the team criteria, CHEM-001 and CHEM-002 were selected as main-treatment and pre-flush chemicals, respectively.
The downhole and surface conditions that exist in deep high-pressure wells pose many challenges to the coiled tubing industry as it strives to provide safe and reliable access to the wells. This paper highlights a case history of successfully snubbing coiled tubing (CT) into two deep (about 14,000ft+) live wells (Well 01 and Well 02) with a high surface pressure (7000psi+) and temperature (80 – 100°C) to stimulate both wells. The success criteria post stimulation was targeted at 75% of the potential production value. However, post treatment results show that cumulative gas production increased by 375% (with about 200psi) with a potential to increase up to 400%.
This paper details the entire operations during the CT well intervention, the planning, design, and technical analysis which led to the selection of a CT with 130,000psi yield strength on a 125K CT injector system, force simulations, and laboratory tests on CT with stimulation chemicals which led to a successful stimulation campaign. The paper also covers the initial planned versus actual operations and the lessons learned leading to on-the-spot optimization plans that resulted in a highly successful intervention operation.
Berry, Sandra L. (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Palm, Dustin C. (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Usie, Marty J. (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Schutz, Ronald W. (TiCorr LLC) | Walker, Heath W. (Arconic Energy Systems)
Matrix acidizing treatments containing hydrogen fluoride (HF) acid have been utilized in stimulation treatments of offshore wells to remove skin associated with fines migration for many years. In the last few years, operators have moved toward the use of organic acid - HF acid treatments due to corrosion concerns in the downhole tubular strings during the initial pumping of live acid and in the Titanium Stress Joints (TSJ) during the acid flow back through the production riser. A corrosion inhibitor to inhibit any unspent HF in the acid flowback returns would be beneficial to operators. Production of spent acid flowing back through the production riser is seriously being considered because significant cost savings may be realized over other acid flowback options. However, although most HF acid systems are mostly and/or highly spent during the reaction time with the formation mineralogy, even small concentrations of remaining free HF in the spent acid returns can result in severe bore surface corrosion (etching) and byproduct hydrogen absorption by the riser system TSJ. Lab studies were performed with several different inhibitor formulations added to two different spent organic - HF acid fluid systems to determine the ability for these candidate inhibitors to thwart corrosion (etching) and corresponding hydrogen uptake on ASTM Grade 29 titanium (Ti-29) test coupons. These candidate inhibitors were subjected to four-hour exposure tests conducted at 170 F under 3500 psi pressure with various inhibitor concentrations to determine if the package could meet screening criteria of corrosion/etch rate of less than 0.5 mils per day (0.5 thousandths of an inch) and hydrogen uptake limits consistent with ASTM product specification limits for the short term exposure (i.e., four hours). These lab test results are compared to those from recent published lab test studies on titanium in live and spent HF containing acid fluids, along with discussion on practical implications and considerations for their field use. Developing a corrosion inhibitor to inhibit the residual HF acid in the spent flowback returns and prevent etching and hydrogen uptake by the TSJ in the production risers not only yields effective protection of the TSJ, allowing flowback fluids to be returned thru the production riser, but also offers a significant operational cost savings.
A multi-phase stimulation treatment was required and subsequently executed in deep-water Gulf of Mexico to remediate a multitude of damage mechanisms resulting from years of hydrocarbon production. Among the many challenges that deep-water operators must face, there is the need for remediation of wells experiencing a decline in production. The execution of these treatments can prove to be very costly and require extensive damage assessments to properly design the most effective stimulation plan. Treatment placement is a major part of the decision process and will impact the performance of the job. A well in the Mississippi Canyon field had an asphaltene deposition issue based on asphaltene onset pressure evaluations as well as suspected fines migration issues. Each requiring its own treatment protocol. This operation required that a rig be moved onto location so that the job could be pumped via coiled tubing to assure injectivity into the zone of interest.
A multiphase approach design included:
The challenge is the difference between utilizing xylene alone for organic deposition removal verses specialty solvent treatments specific to asphaltene removal as well as the use of deep penetrating hydrofluoric acid blends and specialty additive packages.
Utilizing this multi-phase approach resulted in a successful treatment outcome for the operator. An increase in total fluids production, an increase in flowing tubing and a job pay off of less than 30 days was the result of finding a solution to these particular set of challenges.
Jin, Ningjing (Vertechs Oil & Gas Technology Co., Ltd.) | Xiao, Shuyue (Exploration and Development Research Institute, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company) | Zhang, Shuo (Vertechs Oil & Gas Technology Co., Ltd.)
The paper will include an introduction of dissolvable plug and its development in oil & gas upstream business. Dissolvable plug is a customized tool, and it could be modified by controlling its chemical compound to adjust its dissolving rate. In addition, slim version dissolvable plug is a plug solution with dissolvability originally brought out to overcome the downhole restriction challenge (ID of SSD), namely to pass the downhole restriction then to set in the original casing ID. A case study of its application in offshore squeeze cementing job will be analyzed in this paper, from the plug designing perspective to operational data recap to prove its benefits. Conventional plugs will leave the bottom of the plug body downhole after plugs slip losing integrity during the milling operation, and the remainder leaving downhole will choke the well production or even block the well, however, dissolvable plug remainders will dissolve itself downhole, which will not have an impact on the production.
Asia's first rigless subsea stimulation was executed in 2018, with intervention performed upon three target wells offshore Sabah Malaysia, at a water depth of approximately 1400 m (4,593 ft). Significant changes in reservoir performance prompted an acid stimulation and scale squeeze treatment, designed to remedy fines migration and scaling issues within the well and production system. Treatment fluids were delivered subsea by an open-water hydraulic access system, using a hybrid coiled-tubing downline. Access to the subsea trees was permitted via a patented choke access technology, allowing for a flexible, opex-efficient, and low-risk intervention. The intervention system was installed upon a multi-service vessel, with the downline deployed via the vessel moonpool. A second support vessel was used as required to provide additional fluid capacity without disturbing primary intervention operations. This enhanced the flexibility of the operation, permitting changes in the treatment plan to be accommodated for without impact to critical path stimulation activities.
The full intervention was delivered as an integrated service, with all elements supplied by a single provider, via one contract. An established network of in-house equipment, expertise, test laboratories, and operational bases supported the planning and execution of the project. This was complemented by select external providers for vessels, remotely operated vehicle services, and other specialist contractors.
The challenges faced during this new market entry included completion of a comprehensive treatment fluid test program, importation and logistics of equipment from around the globe, and managing operational risks, all within a condensed timeline to satisfy a brief intervention window. By leveraging the diverse global network of the service provider, the technology and people required for the project were accessed and brought together to achieve a collaborative solution. This was enhanced by the inclusion of performance based elements within the contract. The provision of a highly efficient and flexible well access technology also supported rapid mobilization and operational risk reduction.
Post-stimulation well testing confirmed an average increase in oil productivity of 86%, with a corresponding productivity index factor (PIF) gain of 3.4. These results, combined with the efficient execution of the campaign, confirm the appropriateness of open-water hydraulic access using coiled-tubing for performing cost-effective stimulations on complex subsea wells.
Successful entry to the region was highly dependent upon the integrated nature of the service. Access to the service providers global network permitted a high degree of influence upon the ultimate performance of the stimulation. Examples include the PIF results achieved and the responsive actions taken to remedy offshore challenges such as reservoir lock-up on well #3.
In the last quarter-century, financial options such as "calls" and "puts" on publicly traded stocks have become an integral part of managing stock portfolios. The seminal work on financial options was done by Black and Scholes, published in 1973, and Merton, also published in 1973. Merton and Scholes shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in economics for their work. Black, Scholes, and Merton all worked on attempting to determine the value of an option. In recent years, the concepts of valuing options have been expanded from financial options to what are called "real" options in project evaluation.
Shale gas is becoming increasingly important globally. The nature of these reservoirs pose special considerations in reserves estimation. What follows was written in 2001 and needs to be updated based on current experience. Nonetheless, some of the considerations mentioned remain appropriate. As reported in mid-2000, natural gas produced from shale in the US has grown to be approximately 1.6% (0.3 Tcf annually) of total gas production.
Discovered resources of heavy and extraheavy crude oil are estimated to be approximately 4,600 billion bbl, two-thirds of which are in Canada and Venezuela. Bitumen and tar sands are excluded from this estimate. Published data on reserves estimates (RE) from this resource by primary drive mechanisms are sparse. Meyer and Mitchell estimated worldwide ultimate recovery from heavy and extraheavy crude oils to be 476 billion bbl, which is 10% of the Briggs et al. estimate of the discovered resource initially in place. Estimated primary reserves estimates (RE) ranges from 8 to 12% oil-in-place (OIP) for the Orinoco area of Venezuela, where stock-tank gravities range from 8 to 13 American Petroleum Institute (API).