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Abstract Distributed Fiber Optics (DFO) technology has been the new face for unconventional well diagnostics. This technology focuses on measuring Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and Distrusted Temperature Sensing (DTS) to give an in-depth understanding of well productivity pre and post stimulation. Many different completion design strategies, both on surface and downhole, are used to obtain the best fracture network outcome; however, with complex geological features, different fracture designs, and fracture driven interactions (FDIs) effecting nearby wells, it is difficult to grasp a full understanding on completion design performance for each well. Validating completion designs and improving on the learnings found in each data set should be the foundation in developing each field. Capturing a data set with strong evidence of what works and what doesn't, can help the operator make better engineering decisions to make more efficient wells as well as help gauge the spacing between each well. The focus of this paper will be on a few case studies in the Bakken which vividly show how infill wells greatly interfered with production output. A DFO deployed with a 0.6" OD, 23,000-foot-long carbon fiber rod to acquire DAS and DTS for post frac flow, completion, and interference evaluation. This paper will dive into the DFO measurements taken post frac to further explain what effects are seen on completion designs caused by interferences with infill wells; the learnings taken from the DFO post frac were applied to further escalate the understanding and awareness of how infill wells will preform on future pad sites. A showcase of three separate data sets from the Bakken will identify how effective DFO technology can be in evaluating and making informed decisions on future frac completions. In this paper we will also show and discuss how DFO can measure real time FDI events and what measures can be taken to lessen the impact on negative interference caused by infill wells.
DOMESTIC HEATING OIL: TRENDS IN THE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF DISTILLATE FUEL OILS FOR RESIDENTIAL USE Franz W. Heger, Alfred J. Ecker and Johann A. Hufnagel, OMV-Energie, Department Research and Development, P.O. Box 75, A-2320 Schwechat, Austria. Abstract. This paper discusses the market potential for distillate fuel oils in industrialized countries and the impact of environmental legislation on the middle distillate-pool and the quality requirements which are to be expected. The potential uses of different qualities of middle distillate components are also assessed. The influence of different gas oil qualities on emission behaviour was investigated in modern small scale heating systems. In particular the effect of burner technology on the classical emissions parameters soot, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide is considered. On the basis of these results, a relationship between the fuel nitrogen content and NO,-emissions is demonstrated. The opportunities of using additives to reduce emissions and the possible use of alternative fuels with low emissions in small scale heating systems are also discussed. Résumé. Cette communication étudie le marché potentiel des fuel-oils de distillation dans les pays industrialisés et l'impact de la législation concernant l'environnement sur le pool de distillat moyen et les exigences de qualité auxquels on peut s'attendre. On évalue aussi les utilisations potentielles de diverses qualités des composants de distillats moyens. L'influence de qualités différentes de gas-oil sur le comportement des émissions est étudiée dans les systèmes de chauffage à petite échelle. On considère en particulier l'effet de la technologie des brûleurs sur les paramètres classiques d'émissions de suie, de monoxyde de carbone, d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés et d'oxyde d'azote. Sur la base de ces résultats, une relation est démonstrée entre le contenu azoté des carburants et les émissions de NO,. On traite aussi les occasions d'utiliser des additifs pour réduire les émissions et l'utilisation possible de carbu- rants de remplacement à faibles émissions dans les systèmes de chauffage a petite échelle. 1.
Future developments in the mineral oil industry will be very much influenced by the requirements of environmental protection. This will be particularly the case in highly industrialized and densely popu- lated Europe. Indeed the peoples of Europe are already displaying a high degree of sensitivity in this area and with this have come demands for the rapid implementation of environmental measures. This is especially noticeable in Scandinavia and wide areas of Central Europe. We must therefore anticipate that great demands will also be made on future qualities, also in the case of mineral oil products. The traditional fossil energy sources-like fuel oils-will certainly come under the spotlight. This will also apply to the area of small scale hea