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Abstract Distributed Fiber Optics (DFO) technology has been the new face for unconventional well diagnostics. This technology focuses on measuring Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and Distrusted Temperature Sensing (DTS) to give an in-depth understanding of well productivity pre and post stimulation. Many different completion design strategies, both on surface and downhole, are used to obtain the best fracture network outcome; however, with complex geological features, different fracture designs, and fracture driven interactions (FDIs) effecting nearby wells, it is difficult to grasp a full understanding on completion design performance for each well. Validating completion designs and improving on the learnings found in each data set should be the foundation in developing each field. Capturing a data set with strong evidence of what works and what doesn't, can help the operator make better engineering decisions to make more efficient wells as well as help gauge the spacing between each well. The focus of this paper will be on a few case studies in the Bakken which vividly show how infill wells greatly interfered with production output. A DFO deployed with a 0.6" OD, 23,000-foot-long carbon fiber rod to acquire DAS and DTS for post frac flow, completion, and interference evaluation. This paper will dive into the DFO measurements taken post frac to further explain what effects are seen on completion designs caused by interferences with infill wells; the learnings taken from the DFO post frac were applied to further escalate the understanding and awareness of how infill wells will preform on future pad sites. A showcase of three separate data sets from the Bakken will identify how effective DFO technology can be in evaluating and making informed decisions on future frac completions. In this paper we will also show and discuss how DFO can measure real time FDI events and what measures can be taken to lessen the impact on negative interference caused by infill wells.
Wu, Yinghui (Silixa LLC) | Hull, Robert (Silixa LLC) | Tucker, Andrew (Apache Corp.) | Rice, Craig (Apache Corp.) | Richter, Peter (Silixa LLC) | Wygal, Ben (Silixa LLC) | Farhadiroushan, Mahmoud (Silixa Ltd.) | Trujillo, Kirk (Silixa LLC) | Woerpel, Craig (Silixa LLC)
Abstract Distributed fiber-optic sensing (DFOS) has been utilized in unconventional reservoirs for hydraulic fracture efficiency diagnostics for many years. Downhole fiber cables can be permanently installed external to the casing to monitor and measure the uniformity and efficiency of individual clusters and stages during the completion in the near-field wellbore environment. Ideally, a second fiber or multiple fibers can be deployed in offset well(s) to monitor and characterize fracture geometries recorded by fracture-driven interactions or frac-hits in the far-field. Fracture opening and closing, stress shadow creation and relaxation, along with stage isolation can be clearly identified. Most importantly, fracture propagation from the near to far-field can be better understood and correlated. With our current technology, we can deploy cost effective retrievable fibers to record these far-field data. Our objective here is to highlight key data that can be gathered with multiple fibers in a carefully planned well-spacing study and to evaluate and understand the correspondence between far-field and near-field Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) data. In this paper, we present a case study of three adjacent horizontal wells equipped with fiber in the Permian basin. We can correlate the near-field fluid allocation across a stage down to the cluster level to far-field fracture driven interactions (FDIs) with their frac-hit strain intensity. With multiple fibers we can evaluate fracture geometry, the propagation of the hydraulic fractures, changes in the deformation related to completion designs, fracture complexity characterization and then integrate the results with other data to better understand the geomechanical processes between wells. Novel frac-hit corridor (FHC) is introduced to evaluate stage isolation, azimuth, and frac-hit intensity (FHI), which is measured in far-field. Frac design can be evaluated with the correlation from near-field allocation to far-field FHC and FHI. By analyzing multiple treatment and monitor wells, the correspondence can be further calibrated and examined. We observe the far-field FHC and FHI are directly related to the activities of near-field clusters and stages. A leaking plug may directly result in FHC overlapping, gaps and variations in FHI, which also can be correlated to cluster uniformity. A near-far field correspondence can be established to evaluate FHC and FHI behaviors. By utilizing various completion designs and related measurements (e.g. Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS), gauges, microseismic etc.), optimization can be performed to change the frac design based on far-field and near-field DFOS data based on the Decision Tree Method (DTM). In summary, hydraulic fracture propagation can be better characterized, measured, and understood by deploying multiple fibers across a lease. The correspondence between the far-field measured FHC and FHI can be utilized for completion evaluation and diagnostics. As the observed strain is directly measured, completion engineering and geoscience teams can confidently optimize their understanding of the fracture designs in real-time.
Kebert, Brent (Colorado School of Mines) | Almulhim, Abdulraof (Colorado School of Mines) | Miskimins, Jennifer (Colorado School of Mines) | Hunter, William (Ovintiv Inc) | Soehner, Gage (Ovintiv Inc)
Abstract Successfully treating each cluster within a hydraulic fracturing stage is a key objective for "plug-n-perf" well completions. Most operating companies would agree that the main underlying desire for a successful completion is related to future production capability. In unconventional reservoirs, propped and conductive hydraulic fractures are the primary completion result that drives production and reserve recovery. When designing a treatment, the spacing of clusters is critical to optimizing production and reserve recovery parameters, and therefore, even proppant distribution across a single stage delivers a well the greatest potential for optimized production performance. Diverting the fracturing fluid and proppant evenly across the clusters in a stage allows the greatest opportunity for each cluster to produce equally and drain the associated reservoir volume. Generating equal, producing fractures across a horizontal wellbore is a difficult problem that operators are still trying to solve. This work models the fluid and proppant distribution across a field-scale, 250-ft long, horizontal hydraulic fracturing stage, replicating realistic field conditions. By utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD), this paper investigates the effected proppant distribution results from a fracturing stage mimicking the presence of both a leaking plug and the impacts of stress shadowing. The proppant concentration throughout the wellbore, along with internal wellbore pressure and velocity, are also reviewed to gain an understanding of the effect of the field conditions. Additionally, this paper illustrates the effect of different proppant "ramping" conditions during the fracturing stage. Proppant ramping schedules can be smooth or sharp when increasing proppant concentration, which alters the proppant concentrations throughout the wellbore and associated perforation clusters. Unanticipated alterations of the proppant concentration within the wellbore can lead to early screenouts. Gaining a better understanding of the proppant distribution and concentration inside the wellbore can lead to improved designs of hydraulic fracturing completions.
Abstract With a recent trend in increased infill well development in the Midland basin and other unconventional plays, it has been shown that depletion has a significant impact on hydraulic fracture propagation. This is largely because production drawdown causes in-situ stress changes, resulting in asymmetric fracture growth toward the depleted regions. In turn, this can have a negative impact on production capacity. For the initial part of this study, an infill child well was drilled and completed adjacent to a parent well that had been producing for two years. Due to drilling difficulties, the child well was steered to a new target zone located 125 feet above the original target. However, relative to the original target, treatment data from the new zone indicated abnormal treatment responses leading to a study to evaluate the source of these variations and subsequent mitigation. The initial study was conducted using a pore pressure estimation derived from drill bit geomechanics data to investigate depletion effects on the infill child well. The pore pressure results were compared to the child well treatment responses and bottom hole pressure measurements in the parent well. Following the initial study, additional hydraulic fracture modeling studies were conducted on a separate pad to investigate depletion around the infill wells, determine optimal well spacing for future wells given the level of depletion, and optimize treatment designs for future wells in similar depletion scenarios. A depletion model workflow was implemented based on integrating hydraulic fracture modeling and reservoir analytics for future infill pad development. The geomechanical properties were calibrated by DFIT results and pressure matching of the parent well treatments for the in-situ virgin conditions. Parent well fracture geometries were used in an RTA for an analytical approach of estimating drainage area of the parent wells. These were then applied to a depletion profile in the hydraulic fracture model for well spacing analysis and treatment design sensitivities. Results of the initial study indicated that stages in the new, higher interval had higher breakdown pressures than the lower interval. Additionally, the child well drilled in the lower interval had normal breakdown pressures in line with the parent well treatments. This suggests that treatment differences in the wells were ultimately due to depletion of the offset parent well. Based on the modeling efforts, optimal infill well spacing was determined based on the on-production time of the parent wells. The optimal treatment designs were also determined under the same conditions to minimize offset frac hits and unnecessary completion costs. This case study presents the use of a multi-disciplinary approach for well spacing and treatment optimization. The integration of a novel method of estimating pore pressure and depletion modeling workflows were used in an inventive way to understand depletion effects on future development.
Ji, Qin (Reveal Energy Services) | Vernon, Geoff (Earthstone Energy) | Mata, Juan (Earthstone Energy) | Klier, Shannon (Earthstone Energy) | Perry, Matthew (Reveal Energy Services) | Garcia, Allie (Reveal Energy Services) | Coenen, Erica (Reveal Energy Services)
Abstract This paper demonstrates how to use pressure data from offset wells to assess fracture growth and evolution through each stage by quantifying the impacts of nearby parent well depletion, completion design, and formation. Production data is analyzed to understand the correlation between fracture geometries, well interactions, and well performance. The dataset in this project includes three child wells and one parent well, landed within two targets of the Wolfcamp B reservoir in the Midland Basin. The following workflow helped the operator understand the completion design effectiveness and its impact to production:Parent well pressure analysis during completion Isolated stage offset pressure analysis during completion One-month initial production analysis followed by one month shut-in Pressure interference test: sequentially bringing wells back online Production data comparison before and after shut-in period An integrated analysis of surface pressure data acquired from parent and offset child wells during completions provides an understanding of how hydraulic dimensions of each fracture stage are affected by fluid volume, proppant amount, frac stage order of operations, and nearby parent well depletion. Production data from all wells was analyzed to determine the impact of depletion on child well performance and to investigate the effects of varying completion designs. A pressure interference test based on Chow Pressure Group was also performed to further examine the connectivity between wells, both inter- and intra-zone. Surface pressure data recorded from isolated stages in the offset child wells during completions was used to resolve geometries and growth rates of the stimulated fractures. Asymmetric fracture growth, which preferentially propagates toward the depleted rock volume around the parent well, was identified at the heel of the child well closest to the parent. Fracture geometries of various child well stage groups were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of different completion designs and the impact of in situ formation properties. Analysis of parent well surface pressure data indicates that changing the completion design effectively reduced the magnitude of Fracture Driven Interactions (FDIs) between child and parent wells. Child well production was negatively impacted in the wells where the fracture boundary overlapped with the parent well depleted volume in the same formation zone. This study combines pressure and production analyses to better understand inter- and intra-zone interference between wells. The demonstrated workflow offers a very cost-effective approach to studying well interference. Observing and understanding the factors that drive fracture growth behavior enables better decision-making during completion design planning, mitigation of parent-child communication, and enhancement of offset well production.
Equinor and its partners have completed the initial phase of construction on the concrete spar substructures that will host the turbines for the 88-MW Hywind Tampen floating wind power project. With work completed on the first 20 m of 11 substructures at Aker Solutions' yard at Stord, the project now moves to the deepwater site at Dommersnes where the substructures will be completed to a total length of 107.5 m. This is the first concrete slipforming for an offshore project on the Norwegian continental shelf since the Troll A platform was delivered in 1995. Hywind Tampen will be the world's largest floating offshore wind farm and the world's first to power offshore oil and gas platforms. It is also the first floating wind project from Equinor using concrete technology.
Abstract Multistage hydraulic fracturing is the common stimulation technique for shale formations. The treatment design, formation in-situ stress, and reservoir heterogeneity govern the fracture network propagation. Different techniques have been used to evaluate the fracture geometry and the completion efficiency including Chemical Tracers, Microseismic, Fiber Optics, and Production Logs. Most of these methods are post-fracture as well as time and cost intensive processes. The current study presents the use of fall-off data during and after stage fracturing to characterize producing surface area, permeability, and fracture conductivity. Shut-in data (15-30 minutes) was collected after each stage was completed. The fall-off data was processed first to remove the noise and water hammer effects. Log-Log derivative diagnostic plots were used to define the flow regime and the data were then matched with an analytical model to calculate producing surface area, permeability, and fracture conductivity. Diagnostic plots showed a unique signature of flow regimes. A long period of a spherical flow regime with negative half-slope was observed as an indication for limited entry flow either vertically or horizontally. A positive half-slope derivative represents a linear flow regime in an infinitely conductive tensile fracture. The quarter-slope derivative was observed in a bilinear flow regime that represents a finite conductivity fracture system. An extended radial flow regime was observed with zero slope derivative which represents a highly shear fractured network around the wellbore. For a long fall-off period, formation recharge may appear with a slope between unit and 1.5 slopes derivative, especially in over-pressured dry gas reservoirs. Analyzing fall-off data after stages are completed provides a free and real-time investigation method to estimate the fracture geometry and a measure of completion efficiency. Knowing the stage properties allows the reservoir engineer to build a simulation model to forecast the well performance and improve the well spacing.
Abstract Flow Control Device (FCD) completions in steam assisted thermal applications have been implemented in several places: Canada, California, China, Oman and Colombia, among others. Such completion configurations have been more common in recent years to mitigate or avoid uneven and/or improper steam placement and steam breakthrough, which are some of the critical issues operators have experienced in these developments. This study presents different FCD technologies designed to optimize the steam injection and fluids production for diverse steam assisted applications including SAGD, CSS and Steam Flooding. Three FCD technologies are introduced: (i) supersonic steam injection FCD, (ii) steam choking FCD and (iii) multi-directional FCD. Extensive Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations, analytic near-wellbore simulations and flow loop testing were conducted to evaluate the performance of the three technologies: (i) the supersonic steam injection FCD showed a high pressure recovery (therefore, less upstream pressure requirements) and a reduction of the cumulative steam-oil ratio, (ii) the steam choking FCD demonstrated the highest steam choking capability for these type of devices and (iii) the multi-directional FCD showed promising results for CSS applications to allow for supersonic steam injection during the injection phase and steam choking capabilities during the production phase Common FCD deployment risks such as erosion, scaling potential and high pressure drops were reviewed to provide the reader with a high level understanding of the factors which could induce these issues. Finally, field data where FCD completions have been installed is presented to compare the FCD wells performance versus conventional well designs and illustrate the success of these completions strategies. Keywords: flow control devices, supersonic steam injection, steam choking
Abstract Full-physics models in history matching and optimization can be computationally expensive since these problems usually require hundreds of simulations or more. We have previously implemented a physics-based data-driven network model with a commercial simulator that serves as a surrogate without the need to build the 3-D geological model. In this paper, we reconstruct the network model to account for complex reservoir conditions of mature fields and successfully apply it to a diatomite reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) for rapid history matching and optimization. The reservoir is simplified into a network of 1-D connections between well perforations. These connections are discretized into grid blocks and the grid properties are calibrated to historical production data. Elevation change, saturation distribution, capillary pressure, and relative permeability are accounted for to best represent the mature field conditions. To simulate this physics-based network model through a commercial simulator, an equivalent 2-D Cartesian model is designed where rows correspond to the above-mentioned connections. Thereafter, the history matching can be performed with the Ensemble Smoother with Multiple Data Assimilation (ESMDA) algorithm under a sequential iterative process. A representative model after history matching is then employed for well control optimization. The network model methodology has been successfully applied to the waterflood optimization for a 56-well sector model of a diatomite reservoir in the SJV. History matching result shows that the network model honors field-level production history and gives reasonable matches for most of the wells, including pressure and flow rate. The calibrated ensemble from the last iteration of history matching yields a satisfactory production prediction, which is verified by the remaining historical data. For well control optimization, we select the P50 model to maximize the Net Present Value (NPV) in 5 years under provided well/field constraints. This confirms that the calibrated network model is accurate enough for production forecasts and optimization. The use of a commercial simulator in the network model provided flexibility to account for complex physics, such as elevation difference between wells, saturation non-equilibrium, and strong capillary pressure. Unlike traditional big-loop workflow that relies on a detailed characterization of geological models, the proposed network model only requires production data and can be built and updated rapidly. The model also runs much faster (tens of seconds) than a full-physics model due to the employment of much fewer grid blocks. To our knowledge, this is the first time this physics-based data-driven network model is applied with a commercial simulator on a field waterflood case. Unlike approaches developed with analytic solutions, the use of commercial simulator makes it feasible to be further extended for complex processes, e.g., thermal or compositional flow. It serves as an useful surrogate model for both fast and reliable decision-making in reservoir management.
Karaaslan, M. (University of Houston) | Wong, G. K. (University of Houston (Corresponding author) | Soter, K. L. (email: email@example.com)) | Hicking, S. H. (Shell Exploration and Production, Co) | Yousif, Majeed H. (Shell International Exploration and Production, Inc.)
Summary Well surveillance requires practical models to balance the reward of maximizing production with the risk of ramping up production too much, which damages the completion. In this paper we present a method to monitor and ramp up production for openhole standalone screen (OH-SAS) completion. The objective is to optimize production using pressure transient analyses to assess the completion impairment and failure risks during the production ramp-up process. The flux model incorporates filter-cake pinholes, which are formed from nonuniform deposition and cleanup of filter cake during drilling and completion operations. Pinholes cause concentrated fluxes and increase completion failure risks. The method comprises three components, which are (1) determine pinhole properties from laboratory tests, (2) relate completion pressure drop of production through pinholes to pressure transient analyses, and (3) distribute fluxes in the standalone screen wellbore. Examples are presented and show that the completion pressure drop as a function of flow rate is nonlinear and higher with pinholes than without pinholes. By not incorporating pinholes, operations can potentially limit ramp-up. Flux distribution examples show that the largest impingement or radial velocity is at the top section of screen. The axial annular flow velocity or scouring velocity is two orders of magnitude larger than the screen impingement velocity. An integrated flux surveillance method for OH-SAS completion is presented for field applications.