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Wide varieties of roller cone bits are available. They provide optimum performance in specific formations and/or particular drilling environments. Modern drill bits incorporate significantly different cutting structures and use vastly improved materials, resulting in improved bit efficiency. Manufacturers work closely with drilling companies to collect information about their bits to identify opportunities for design improvements. To achieve these goals, bit designers consider several factors. Replace this text with a brief (3-4 lines) introduction to what is covered on this page. Replace header name above, then begin creating your text in place of this text. To make subheads to this heading, use the Heading level 3 style from the drop down.
Principles for Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit design are discussed here. Each of these factors must be considered on an application-to-application basis to ensure achievement of rate of penetration (ROP) goals during cooling, cleaning the bit, and removing cuttings efficiently. During design, all factors are considered simultaneously. Cutting structures must provide adequate bottomhole coverage to address formation hardness, abrasiveness, and potential vibrations and to satisfy productive needs. Early (1970s) PDC bits incorporated elementary designs without waterways or carefully engineered provisions for cleaning and cooling.
Brinkley, Kourtney (Devon Energy) | Ingle, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Haffener, Jackson (Devon Energy) | Chapman, Philip (Devon Energy) | Baker, Scott (Devon Energy) | Hart, Eric (Devon Energy) | Haustveit, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Roberts, Jon (Devon Energy)
Abstract This case study details the use of Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) to improve the characterization of fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation of inter-connected stacked pay in the South Texas Eagle Ford Shale. The SWPM workflow utilizes surface pressure gauges to detect hydraulically induced fracture arrivals athorizontal monitor locations adjacent to the stimulated wellbore (Haustveit et al. 2020). A stacked and staggered development in Dewitt County provided the opportunity to jointly evaluateprimary completion and recompletion efforts spanning three reservoir target intervals. Fivemonitor wells at varying distances across the unit were employed for SWPM during the stimulation of four wells. An operational overview, analysis of techniques, correlation with seismic attributes, image log interpretations, and fracture model calibration are provided. Outputs from this workflow allow for a refined analysis ofthe overall completion strategy. The high-density, five well monitor array recorded a total of 160 fracture arrivals at varying vertical and lateral distances, with far-field fracture arrivalsprovidingsignificant insight into propagation rates and geometry. Apronounced trend occurred in both arrival frequency and volumes pumped as monitor locations increased in distance from the treatment well. Specific to target zone isolation, it was identified that traversing vertically in section through a high stress interval yielded a 30% reduction inarrival frequency. An indirect relationship between horizontal distance and arrival frequency was also observed when monitoring from the same interval. A decrease in fracture arrivals from 70% down to 8% was realized as offset distance increased from 120 to 1,700 ft. The results from this study have proven to be instrumental in guiding interdisciplinary discussion. Assessing fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation, particularly in the co-development of a stacked pay reservoir, is paramount to the determination of proper completion volume, perforation design, and well spacing. Leveraging the observations of SWPM ultimately provides greater confidence in field development strategy and economic optimization.
Wu, Yinghui (Silixa LLC) | Hull, Robert (Silixa LLC) | Tucker, Andrew (Apache Corp.) | Rice, Craig (Apache Corp.) | Richter, Peter (Silixa LLC) | Wygal, Ben (Silixa LLC) | Farhadiroushan, Mahmoud (Silixa Ltd.) | Trujillo, Kirk (Silixa LLC) | Woerpel, Craig (Silixa LLC)
Abstract Distributed fiber-optic sensing (DFOS) has been utilized in unconventional reservoirs for hydraulic fracture efficiency diagnostics for many years. Downhole fiber cables can be permanently installed external to the casing to monitor and measure the uniformity and efficiency of individual clusters and stages during the completion in the near-field wellbore environment. Ideally, a second fiber or multiple fibers can be deployed in offset well(s) to monitor and characterize fracture geometries recorded by fracture-driven interactions or frac-hits in the far-field. Fracture opening and closing, stress shadow creation and relaxation, along with stage isolation can be clearly identified. Most importantly, fracture propagation from the near to far-field can be better understood and correlated. With our current technology, we can deploy cost effective retrievable fibers to record these far-field data. Our objective here is to highlight key data that can be gathered with multiple fibers in a carefully planned well-spacing study and to evaluate and understand the correspondence between far-field and near-field Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) data. In this paper, we present a case study of three adjacent horizontal wells equipped with fiber in the Permian basin. We can correlate the near-field fluid allocation across a stage down to the cluster level to far-field fracture driven interactions (FDIs) with their frac-hit strain intensity. With multiple fibers we can evaluate fracture geometry, the propagation of the hydraulic fractures, changes in the deformation related to completion designs, fracture complexity characterization and then integrate the results with other data to better understand the geomechanical processes between wells. Novel frac-hit corridor (FHC) is introduced to evaluate stage isolation, azimuth, and frac-hit intensity (FHI), which is measured in far-field. Frac design can be evaluated with the correlation from near-field allocation to far-field FHC and FHI. By analyzing multiple treatment and monitor wells, the correspondence can be further calibrated and examined. We observe the far-field FHC and FHI are directly related to the activities of near-field clusters and stages. A leaking plug may directly result in FHC overlapping, gaps and variations in FHI, which also can be correlated to cluster uniformity. A near-far field correspondence can be established to evaluate FHC and FHI behaviors. By utilizing various completion designs and related measurements (e.g. Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS), gauges, microseismic etc.), optimization can be performed to change the frac design based on far-field and near-field DFOS data based on the Decision Tree Method (DTM). In summary, hydraulic fracture propagation can be better characterized, measured, and understood by deploying multiple fibers across a lease. The correspondence between the far-field measured FHC and FHI can be utilized for completion evaluation and diagnostics. As the observed strain is directly measured, completion engineering and geoscience teams can confidently optimize their understanding of the fracture designs in real-time.
Summary Various unified gas flow (UGF) and apparent permeability models have been proposed to characterize the complex gas transport mechanisms in shale formations. However, such models are typically expressed as combinations of multiple gas flow mechanisms so that they cannot predict gas velocity profile. In this study, we develop a novel approach to predict the gas velocity profile in the entire Knudsen number (Kn) regime for circular and noncircular (i.e., square, rectangular, triangular and elliptical) nanochannels and investigate the effects of cross-sectional geometry on gas transport in nanochannels. To this end, a new UGF model is proposed to describe the gas flow behaviors in the entire Kn regime, considering the effects of gas slippage, bulk diffusion, Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, and cross-sectional geometry of flow channel. In addition, the boundary condition of the semianalytical second-order slip model applicable to various cross-sectional geometries is modified by adjusting the slip coefficients through the comparison between the proposed UGF model and the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation with second-order slip boundary condition. As a result, the velocity profile of free gas in the entire Kn regime for the nanochannel with a specific cross section can be determined by solving the second-order slip model with adjusted slip coefficients via the finite element method. The results indicate that the geometry of the cross section has a significant influence on the mass flow rate and gas velocity profile in nanochannels. The predicted mass flow rates for the nanochannels with identical hydraulic diameter decrease with the cross-sectional geometry in the sequence as ellipse > equilateral triangle > rectangle > square > circle. However, the ranking of velocity profiles for such nanochannels, which is governed by the cross-sectional geometry, also varies with Kn. These findings indicate that the developed approach can predict the synergetic gas transport (i.e., gas slippage, bulk diffusion, Knudsen diffusion, and surface diffusion) and gas velocity profile in nanochannels with different cross-sectional geometries for a wide range of Kn, which gives insight into the characterization of gas flow behaviors in nanoporous shale.
Abstract Flow Control Device (FCD) completions in steam assisted thermal applications have been implemented in several places: Canada, California, China, Oman and Colombia, among others. Such completion configurations have been more common in recent years to mitigate or avoid uneven and/or improper steam placement and steam breakthrough, which are some of the critical issues operators have experienced in these developments. This study presents different FCD technologies designed to optimize the steam injection and fluids production for diverse steam assisted applications including SAGD, CSS and Steam Flooding. Three FCD technologies are introduced: (i) supersonic steam injection FCD, (ii) steam choking FCD and (iii) multi-directional FCD. Extensive Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations, analytic near-wellbore simulations and flow loop testing were conducted to evaluate the performance of the three technologies: (i) the supersonic steam injection FCD showed a high pressure recovery (therefore, less upstream pressure requirements) and a reduction of the cumulative steam-oil ratio, (ii) the steam choking FCD demonstrated the highest steam choking capability for these type of devices and (iii) the multi-directional FCD showed promising results for CSS applications to allow for supersonic steam injection during the injection phase and steam choking capabilities during the production phase Common FCD deployment risks such as erosion, scaling potential and high pressure drops were reviewed to provide the reader with a high level understanding of the factors which could induce these issues. Finally, field data where FCD completions have been installed is presented to compare the FCD wells performance versus conventional well designs and illustrate the success of these completions strategies. Keywords: flow control devices, supersonic steam injection, steam choking
Summary Linear network models are promisingly simple progressive cavity pump design tools. Current linear network models are difficult to use in the design process because they require calibration against experimental data or computationally intensive simulation. In this paper we present new approaches for implementing linear network progressive cavity pump models and provide new methods to accurately and quickly estimate the values of each resistor in the model from pump geometry for both laminar and turbulent flows. This paper also argues that sealing-line flow transitions from laminar to turbulent at orders of magnitude smaller Reynolds numbers than described in the literature thus far. We propose a new hypothesis for the point of transition to turbulent performance.
Summary Low-frequency distributed-acoustic-sensing (LF-DAS) strain data are direct measurements of in-situ rock deformation during hydraulic-fracturing treatments. In addition to monitoring fracture propagation and identifying fracture hits, quantitative strain measurements of LF-DAS provide opportunities to quantify fracture geometries. Recently, we proposed a Green’s function–based algorithm for the inversion of LF-DAS strain data (Liu et al. 2020b) that shows an accurate estimation of fracture width near the monitor well with single-cluster completions. However, multicluster completions with tighter cluster spacings are more commonly adopted in recent completion designs. One main challenge in the inversion of LF-DAS strain data under such circumstances is that strain measurements at fracture-hit locations by LF-DAS are not reliable, which makes the individual contribution of each fracture to the measured strain data indistinguishable. In this study, we first extended the inversion algorithm to handle multiple fractures, investigated the uncertainties of the inversion results, and proposed possible mitigation to the challenges raised by completion designs and field data acquisition through a synthetic case study. Ideally, there are available data on both sides of each fracture so that the inverted width of each fracture can be obtained with a negligible error. In reality, the strain data are usually limited, providing less constraint on the width of individual fracture. Nevertheless, the inversion results provide an accurate estimation of the width summation of all fractures. To evaluate the individual fracture width, a time-dependent constraint is added to the inversion algorithm. We assume that the width at the current timestep is dependent on the width at the previous step and the width variation between the two timesteps. The width variation can be roughly estimated from LF-DASstrain-rate data at the fracture-hit location. This extra constraint helps to improve the inversion performance. Finally, a field example is presented. We show the width summation of all fractures and the width of each individual fracture as a function of treatment time. The time-dependent width profiles show consistent trends with the LF-DASstrain-rate data. The calculated strains from the inverted model match well with the LF-DAS measured strain data. The findings demonstrate the potential of LF-DAS data for quantitative hydraulic-fracture characterization and provide insights on better use of LF-DAS data. The direct information on fracture width helps to calibrate fracturing models and optimize the completion designs.
Summary Decline curve analysis (DCA) has been the mainstay in unconventional reservoir evaluation. Because of the extremely low matrix permeability, each well is evaluated economically for ultimate recovery as if it were its own reservoir. Classification and normalization of well potential is difficult because of ever-changing stimulation total contact area and a hyperbolic curve fit parameter that is disconnected from any traditional reservoir characterization descriptor. A new discrete fracture model approach allows direct modeling of inflow performance in terms of fracture geometry, drainage volume shape, and matrix permeability. Running such a model with variable geometrical input to match the data in lieu of standard regression techniques allows extraction of a meaningful parameter set for reservoir characterization, an expected outcome from all conventional well testing. Because the entirety of unconventional well operation is in transient mode, the discrete fractured well solution to the diffusivity equation is used to model temporal well performance. The analytical solution to the diffusivity equation for a line source or a 2D fracture operating under constrained bottomhole pressure consists of a sum of terms, each with exponential damping with time. Each of these terms has a relationship with the constant rate, semisteady-state solution for inflow, although the well is not operated with constant rate, nor will this flow regime ever be realized. The new model is compared with known literature models, and sensitivity analyses are presented for variable geometry to illustrate the depiction of different time regimes naturally falling out of the unified diffusivity equation solution for discrete fractures. We demonstrate that apparent hyperbolic character transitioning to exponential decline can be modeled directly with this new methodology without the need to define any crossover point. The mathematical solution to the physical problem captures the rate transient functionality and any and all transitions. Each exponential term in the model is related to the various possible interferences that may develop, each occurring at a different time, thus yielding geometrical information about the drainage pattern or development of fracture interference within the context of ultralow matrix permeability. Previous results analyzed by traditional DCA can be reinterpreted with this model to yield an alternate set of descriptors. The approach can be used to characterize the efficacy of evolving stimulation practices in terms of geometry within the same field and thus contribute to the current type curve analyses subject to binning. It enables the possibility of intermixing of vertical and horizontal well performance information as simply gathering systems of different geometry operating in the same reservoir. The new method will assist in reservoir characterization and evaluation of evolving stimulation technologies in the same field and allow classification of new type curves.
Teigland, Andreas (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Brechan, Bjørn (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Dale, Stein Inge (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Sangesland, Sigbjørn (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
Summary As wells in modern operations are getting longer and more complex, assessing the effect of casing wear becomes ever more crucial. Degradation of the tubulars through mechanical wear reduces the pressure capacity significantly. In this paper, we use the finite element method (FEM) to analyze the stress distribution in degraded geometries and to assess reduction in collapse strength. A model for the collapse strength of the casing with a crescent-shaped wear groove is developed and its performance evaluated in relation to experimental data. The model was created by using the Buckingham Pi theorem to make generalized empirical expressions for yield and elastic collapse of tubulars. Finite element analysis (FEA) of 135 geometries was used in the development of the model. The results show that the generalized expressions capture the trends observed in the FEA accurately and match the experimental data from six tubular collapse tests with an average relative difference in collapse pressure of 5.2%. Introduction External pressure on tubulars may cause collapse, depending on the magnitude of the pressure, the material properties, and the geometry of the tubular.