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Abstract In previous frac designs, proppant tracer logs revealed poor proppant distribution between clusters. In this study, various technologies were utilized to improve cluster efficiency, primarily focusing on selecting perforations in like-rock, adjusting perforation designs and the use of diverters. Effectiveness of the changes were analyzed using proppant tracer. This study consisted of a group of four wells completed sequentially. Sections of each well were divided into completion design groups characterized by different perforating methodologies. Perforation placement was primarily driven by RockMSE (Mechanical Specific Energy), a calculation derived from drilling data that relates to a rock's compressive strength. Additionally, the RockMSE values were compared alongside three different datasets: gamma ray collected while drilling, a calculation of stresses from accelerometer data placed at the bit, and Pulsed Neutron Cross Dipole Sonic log data. The results of this study showed strong indications that fluid flow is greatly affected by rock strength as mapped with the RockMSE, with fluid preferentially entering areas with low RockMSE. It was found that placing clusters in similar rock types yielded an improved fluid distribution. Additional improved fluid distribution was observed by adjusting hole diameter, number of perforations and pump rate.
Wood, Tanner (ProTechnics Division of Core Laboratories LP) | Leonard, Richard (ProTechnics Division of Core Laboratories LP) | Senters, Chad (ProTechnics Division of Core Laboratories LP) | Squires, Chris (ProTechnics Division of Core Laboratories LP) | Perry, Matthew (ProTechnics Division of Core Laboratories LP)
Abstract The focus of this paper is to examine the water, oil and proppant communication between wells at the Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) in the Permian Basin. Unique tracers were employed during the stimulation of the HFTS pad in conjunction with many additional diagnostic technologies to evaluate interwell communication, fracture behavior, proppant transport and reservoir drainage. Water and oil chemical tracers were utilized on four Upper Wolfcamp (UWC) and four Middle Wolfcamp (MWC) horizontal wells on the HFTS pad. Each traced well was divided into three or four uniquely traced segments. The segments consisted of consecutive stage groupings that were stimulated with the same water and oil tracers. During the production phase of the project, oil and water samples from a combined total of 33 horizontal and vertical wells were analyzed for the presence of the tracers from the eight wells. Additionally, proppant tracers were employed in the stimulation of two UWC and one MWC horizontal well. After all the wells were completed, a spectral gamma ray log was run on each well to identify the proppant coverage, cluster efficiency, near-wellbore (NWB) fracture behavior and/or any proppant communication that occurred. The results of this project provide a better understanding of the fluid and hydrocarbon communication that is taking place between and within the UWC and MWC wells over an initial short-term period as well as the long term. Additionally, the target zone, stimulation design, production methodology and stimulation sequencing are discussed so that comparisons could be made with other diagnostic data from this project. The insights from this two-year study highlight the continued need to optimize completion designs, even while targeting different benches of the same formation. Additionally, future fracture modeling and design criteria can be enhanced with the hydraulic fracture and propped fracture heights and half-lengths determined from fluid and proppant communication to the offset wells.