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Abstract Uniformity of proppant distribution among multiple perforation clusters affects treatment efficiency in multistage fractured wells stimulated using the plug-and-perf technique. Multiple physical phenomena taking place in the well and perforation tunnels can cause uneven proppant distribution among multiple clusters. The problem has been studied in the recent years with experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods, which provide useful insights but are impractical for routine designs. Simplified models that incorporated the proppant transport efficiency (PTE) correlation derived from the CFD results in a hydraulic fracture model have been also presented in literature. In this paper, we present a numerical model that simulates the transient proppant slurry flow in the wellbore, considering proppant transport and settling including bed formation, rate- and concentration-dependent pressure drop, PTE, and dynamic pressure coupling with the hydraulic fractures. The model is efficient and is designed to be an independent wellbore transport model so it can be integrated with any fracture models, including fully 3D and/or complex fracture network models, for practical design optimization. The model predictions are compared and found to agree with previously published studies. Parametric studies demonstrate sensitivity of proppant distribution to grain size, fluid viscosity, and pumping rate for fixed perforation designs. Analysis of the simulation results shows that the dominant cause of uneven proppant distribution is proppant inertia. Possible slurry stratification is less important, except for the cases with relatively low flow rates and near toe clusters. Accordingly, proppant distribution is less sensitive to perforation phasing than to the number of perforations in clusters. Alterations of the number of perforations per cluster within a stage enable achieving more even proppant distribution.
Ajisafe, Foluke (Schlumberger) | Reid, Mark (Lime Rock Resources) | Porter, Hank (Lime Rock Resources) | George, Lydia (Former employee of Schlumberger) | Wu, Rhonna (Former employee of Schlumberger) | Yudina, Kira (Former employee of Schlumberger) | Pena, Alejandro (Schlumberger) | Ejofodomi, Efe (Schlumberger) | Artola, Pedro (Schlumberger)
Abstract Increased drilling of infill wells in the Bakken has led to growing concern over the effects of frac or fracture hits between parent and infill wells. Fracture hits can cause decreased production in a parent well, as well as other negative effects such as wellbore sanding, casing damage, and reduced production performance from the infill well. An operator had an objective to maximize production of infill wells and decrease the frequency and severity of frac hits to parent wells. The goal was to maintain production of the parent wells and avoid sanding, which had the potential to cause cleanouts. Infill well completion technologies were successfully implemented on multiwell pads in Mountrail County, Williston basin, to minimize parent-child well interference or negative frac hits on parent wells for optimized production. Four infill (child) wells were landed in the Three Forks formation directly below a group of six parent wells landed in the Middle Bakken. The infill well completion technologies used in this project to mitigate frac hits included far-field diverter, near-wellbore diverter, and real-time pressure monitoring. The far-field diverter design includes a blend of multimodal particles to bridge the fracture tip, preventing excessive fracture length and height growth. The near-wellbore diverter consists of a proprietary blend of degradable particles with a tetra modal size distribution and fibers used to achieve sequential stimulation of perforated clusters to maximize wellbore coverage. Hydraulic fracture modeling with a unique advanced particle transport model was used to predict the impact of the far-field diverter design on fracture geometry. Real-time pressure monitoring allowed acquisition of parent well pressure data to identify pressure communication or lack of communication and implement mitigation and contingency procedures as necessary. Real-time pressure monitoring was also used to optimize and validate the far-field diversion design during the job execution. The parent well monitored was 800 ft away from the closest infill well and at high risk for frac hits due to both the proximity to the infill well and depletion. In the early stages of the infill well stimulation, an increase in pressure up to 600 psi was observed in the parent well. The far-field diverter design was modified to combat the observed frac hit, after which a noticeable drop in both frequency and magnitude of frac hits was observed on the parent well. This is the first time the far-field diverter design optimization process was done in real time. After the infill wells stimulation treatment, production results showed a positive uplift in oil production for all parent wells at an average of 118%. Also, only two out of seven parent wells required a full cleanout, resulting in savings in well cleanup costs. Infill well production data was compared with the closest parent well landed in the same formation (Three Forks). At about a year, the best infill well production was only 10% less than the parent well with similar completion design and the average infill well production approximately 18% less than the parent well. Considering the depletion surrounding the infill wells, production performance exceeded expectations.
Nafikova, Svetlana (Schlumberger) | Ramazanova, Yulia (Schlumberger) | Muslimov, Alexander (Schlumberger) | Akhmetzianov, Ilshat (Schlumberger) | Jain, Bipin (Schlumberger) | Kim, Alexander (Lukoil) | Zvyagin, Vasily (Lukoil)
Abstract Achieving zonal isolation for the lifetime of oil and gas wells is crucial for well integrity. Poor zonal isolation can detrimentally affect well economics and increase safety-related risks because of pressure buildup with unpredictable consequences. Additional local regulations prohibiting production of a well with positive pressure in the annulus made sustained casing pressure a major challenge for operators in the North Caspian Sea. An innovative cost-effective solution was required to resolve this challenge. Historical well analysis proved that previously applied cementing approaches were ineffective. Several modifications were required to define the effective solution. Implemented changes included revision of the casing setting depth, optimization of the drilling fluids and spacer formulations, and implementation of the self-healing expanding cement. Carefully engineered placement of the self-healing cement system was the key to success. If cracks or microannuli occur and hydrocarbons reach the cement and flow through the cracks, the system has the capability to repair itself, thus restoring integrity of the cement sheath without external intervention. This technology has been used in 11 extended reach wells in two fields with excellent results. The collaborative approach with drilling engineers eliminated the challenging sustained casing pressure issue in two major offshore fields in North Caspian Sea. In addition to the existing cementing best practices available in industry for mud removal efficiency enhancement and successful cement placement, the newly implemented methodology included potential requirements for well trajectory adjustments, implementation of the real-time control during cementing job execution, engineered placement and optimization of the self-healing expanding cement system formulation, and a specifically developed "initially required" bleedoff schedule that allows acceleration of the self-remediation cement capability. The self-healing cement was designed with low Young's modulus for maximum flexibility. Expanding additives were also incorporated into the design to minimize the risk of set cement integrity failure due to microdebonding from bulk shrinkage after setting. Adherence to the mutually developed flowchart for the drilling and cementing stages improved the zonal isolation of the critical hydrocarbon zones in the extended reach wells and increased the success ratio of the wells with no pressure buildup from 30% to almost 100% within the last 5 years. As a result, the self-healing cement technology and developed approach, which is discussed in this paper, have become the standard for both fields for all future wells. The complex engineering approach described in this paper expands the existing best practices in the industry for zonal isolation improvement of the extended reach wells and provides a new effective solution for eliminating sustained casing pressure problems. The design strategy, execution, evaluation, and results for two sample wells are discussed in detail to help to guide future engineering and operational activities around the world.
Dooply, Mohammed (Schlumberger) | Schupbach, Michael (Murphy Exploration & Production Co) | Hampshire, Kenneth (Murphy Exploration & Production Co) | Contreras, Jose (Schlumberger) | Flamant, Nicolas (Schlumberger)
Summary Two of the most important parameters to monitor during a primary cementing job are the flow rate in and return flow rate measurements. To achieve optimum job results of a primary cementing job, measuring annular return rates and comparing them with simulated data in real time will provide a better understanding of job signatures and result in the best possible top of cement (TOC) estimation prior to running any cement evaluation log or making a decision to continue drilling the next section of the well. The return rate job signature along with the wellhead pressure is essential to understanding the behavior and discrepancies between simulated and acquired surface data. Therefore, to assess the risk of job issues, such as unsuspected washout and lost circulation among others, accurate measurements of the return rate are critical. Historically, the cement job evaluation has been limited by the fact that most drilling rigs do not have an accurate flowmeter installed on the annulus return line, and a simple verification of mud tanks volume vs. pumped volume, as reported by drillers or mud loggers, more often than not results in an unreliable assessment of the volume lost downhole, due to the unfamiliarity with the U-tubing effect and lack of data consolidation from the cement unit (flow rate in) and the rig (flow rate in and flow rate out). In this paper, we will review a solution developed to mitigate the lack of a direct flow-rate measurement by computing and displaying the return rate using either a paddle meter measurement or the derivative over time of the volume observed in the rig tanks.
Summary To determine which salt-based cement system (potassium chloride or sodium chloride) was suitable for cementing across halite and anhydrite salt sections in West Africa, eight slurry recipes were tested to assess how formation salt contamination would affect slurry properties. The formation salt used for testing was sampled from a deepwater, presalt well in Angola. The recommendations developed from the laboratory study were implemented in 10 projects across West Africa over 5 years with 100% operational and well integrity success. A candidate deepwater well was selected in which the surface and intermediate strings penetrated salt formations. Four slurry designs (a lead and tail slurry used on each casing string) were programmed. Each slurry was designed and tested as two distinct systems using potassium chloride and sodium chloride salt, respectively, yielding a total of eight slurry designs. Using the methodology and data presented by Martins et al. (2002), the mass of dissolved formation salt that each slurry may receive during placement was estimated and duly incorporated into each slurry design. Subsequently, the salt-contaminated slurries were tested and compared with the properties of the initial uncontaminated slurries. On the basis of these results, conclusions were then made on which salt slurry system (potassium chloride or sodium chloride) exhibited better liquid and set properties after contamination with formation salt. Subsequently, this knowledge was applied to 10 projects across three countries in West Africa. This study showed that when the contact time of liquid cement slurry to salt formation was low—typically when the salt-formation interval across which the cement slurry flowed was less than 100 m thick—the level of formation salt dissolution entering the slurry during placement was limited. In this case, a potassium chloride salt-based slurry delivered improved liquid and set properties as compared with a sodium chloride salt-based slurry. In the field, this knowledge was applied in all oilfield projects cemented by an oilfield service company between 2015 and 2020. This included deepwater, shallow offshore, and onshore wells. All related salt-zone cement jobs, including sidetrack plugs, placed across the salt formations were successful on the first attempt. In an absence of industry consensus around salt-formation cement slurry design, this paper validates a guideline for West Africa, based on results from laboratory testing and 5 years of field application. In contrast to current literature that recommends only sodium chloride salt-based slurry designs across halite or anhydrite salt intervals, this work demonstrates that potassium chloride salt-based slurry systems can effectively be used to achieve well integrity where a halite or anhydrite salt interval is less than 100 m (328.1 ft) thick.
The Rumaila Field is in southeast Iraq and contains multiple reservoir intervals, including the Upper Cretaceous Mishrif carbonate reservoir, one of the major reservoirs in the world, that has been producing for more than 50 years. One of the key challenges in the Mishrif is to characterize the pore-structure distinction between primary and secondary porosity. The secondary porosity in the form of large pores, if present, dominates the petrophysical properties, especially permeability. Advanced logs, e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and image logs, can be used to understand the variations in pore structure, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this paper, we focused primarily on four new wells with very comprehensive logging and coring programs. NMR logs were acquired using different tools and pulse sequences. This resulted in uncertainty in porosity and T2 distributions and, consequently, complications in the NMR interpretation. We observed two key issues: porosity deficit due to lack of polarization and T2 distribution truncation due to the low number of echoes. We used a single pore model to reproduce the NMR response in different pore sizes and fluid types for different pulse sequences. The results showed that the NMR response, especially in water-filled (water-based-mud filtrate) large pores, is sensitive to polarization time, echo spacing, and tool gradient strength. NMR log data confirmed the modeling results. We recommended an optimum pulse sequence and tool characteristics to fully capture the heterogeneous rock and fluid system in this carbonate reservoir. NMR logs, when available, were the primary tools to identify the large pores. We present a consistent workflow for NMR log analysis that was developed to identify and quantify large pores and extended to all wells in the field. We used advanced NMR interpretation techniques, e.g., factor analysis (NMR FA) (Jain et al., 2013), in a series of oil wells drilled with water-based mud. Using factor analysis, we identified a cutoff value of 847 ms for large pore volumes. In this manuscript, we also present an integration of laboratory measurements, e.g., NMR, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) data, whole-core CT scanning, and thin-section analysis, in our interpretation workflow. We also compared the large pore volume from image logs with NMR logs and other laboratory data and observed very consistent results. All the available information was integrated to build an “NMR-based” petrophysical model for porosity, rock type, permeability, and saturation determination. The NMR-based model was very comparable with the classic flow zone indicator (FZI) rock typing. The results of this study were used to modify the NMR acquisition program in the field and to build a petrophysical model based on only NMR and image log measurements for carbonate reservoirs. In this paper, we will discuss NMR modeling and corresponding log data from various wells to confirm the results. Furthermore, we will present a novel interpretation workflow integrating laboratory measurements and log data, which led to the modification of the NMR acquisition program in the field and the creation of a data-driven petrophysical model based on only NMR and image log measurements for carbonate reservoirs.
Yu, Jingfeng (PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Zhou, Diao (PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Zhang, Bo (PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Meng, Haiping (PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Li, Tong (Schlumberger) | Wang, Li (Schlumberger) | Wang, Yong (Schlumberger) | Wang, Fei (Schlumberger) | Wang, Chao (Schlumberger) | Chen, Chengqian (Schlumberger) | Hu, Zhong (Schlumberger) | Lan, Wencheng (Schlumberger) | Liu, Guoyu (Schlumberger) | Wang, Shuai (Schlumberger)
Abstract MH oilfield is a fan delta deposited unconventional tight oil reservoir with complex lithology of volcanic rocks, metamorphic rocks, conglomerate, and claystone. The drilling efficiency was optimized by using the first-generation boundary mapping technology with Rotary Steering System (RSS) during the first batch drilling campaign (H2-2016∼H1-2017), which was mentioned in IADC/SPE-190998-MS. But with the development going further, more and more wells drilled into shale interbed causing low pay zone exposure, long drilling duration, and numerous drilling hazards. The overall drilling performance was not optimistic as before, the average Rate Of Penetration (ROP) decreased by 30.7% and the average footage per run decreased by 38.9% during horizontal section operation in some specific blocks of MH oilfield. By reviewing the detailed drilling and geology material of the first batch drilling, the challenges were defined. There is lateral irregular thin shale interbed existing in this conglomeratic reservoir which is rarely observed from the nearby wells in the first batch drilling zone. That unstable shale interbed with 0.5-2m thickness isolated the target into 2 to 3 components. The first-generation boundary mapping technology can only detect the nearest up or down boundary, with this limitation, it is difficult to reveal these laterally unstable shale interbed. It is crucial to precisely delineate the irregular thin interbed to develop this complex reservoir. Meanwhile, the bit selection which didn't catch up with the formation change is another issue that needs to be optimized timely. To solve the above challenges, the new generation boundary mapping while drilling technology was introduced to this project, it has 3 or more boundaries detecting ability at the same time, which can delineate the irregular thin interbed and optimize real-time Well Placement decision making. Meanwhile, the bit design and selection based on the timely geological data interpretation helped to improve drilling efficiency. This innovative integrated method deployed in phase II horizontal well drilling campaign proved to be an effective approach to optimize geosteering and drilling performance. The clear reservoir geometry delineation effectively helps avoid entering the irregular shale interbed in real-time, thus improve the pay zone exposure and trajectory smoothness. Till 2018, more than 50 wells were completed, the overall drilling performance of 2018 has been improved by 47.2% of footage per run and 42.2% of ROP compared with statistical results of H2-2017 of the M131 block and nearly back to the normal level. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how this integrated approach helps optimize Well Placement, enhance drilling efficiency and save budget with some exemplary case studies. With this success, the authors believe this approach and techniques could effectively address the following horizontal well drilling campaign in this unconventional tight oil reservoir.
Telles, Jose Daniel (Schlumberger) | Kandasamy, Rajeswary (Schlumberger) | Gallo Covarrubias, Rodrigo (Schlumberger) | Camacho, Jacob (Schlumberger) | Costeno, Hugo (Schlumberger) | Mejias, Jose Efrain (Schlumberger) | Alvarez, Francisco (Schlumberger)
Abstract This paper describes a methodology that can be used to estimate the potential value of implementing digital and automation technologies in the well construction process in the context of a complex deepwater environment during the drilling conceptualization phase. This serves as a guideline for those interested in quantifying the value of applying digitization and automation processes, not only to make informed decisions related to investment in drillship or systems hardware and software but as well as performance improvement.
Phyoe, Thein Zaw (Schlumberger) | Salazar, Jose (Schlumberger) | Albuja, Eduardo Herrera (Schlumberger) | Kapoor, Saurabh (Schlumberger) | Orfali, Mohd Waheed (Schlumberger) | Kondo, Kazuyoshi (Schlumberger) | Sajid, Muhammad (Schlumberger) | Rahhal, Gilbert (Schlumberger)
Abstract Lost circulation while drilling across vugular or naturally fractured formations is a difficult challenge which will come with high cost for the oil and gas industry. When lost circulation encounter, the drilling company will result in nonproductive time and remedial operational expenses. Most of the fields in UAE are encountering lost circulation problems while drilling across surface sections, which are difficult to control with conventional lost circulation solutions. Newly engineered high-performance lightweight thixotropic proves beneficial to control losses in vugular and natural fractured formations. The main challenge while drilling the surface section in one UAE field is the total loss of returns and flowing formation. This leads to the inability to continue drilling due logistics to continue producing drilling fluid and to keep the well under control and risk of stuck pipe due to poor cuttings removal. Conventional low-density cement slurries have been widely used to cure losses while drilling, but with low effectiveness. A new lost circulation solution that combines lightweight (10.5–lbm/galUS) high-performance cement and a thixotropic agent produce an engineered high-performance lightweight thixotropic lost circulation solution with fast gel strength and improved compressive strength, enabling the plugging of large voids and fractures to recovery wellbore integrity required to continue drilling. Extensive laboratory qualification tests were performed for static gel strength development to confirm the plugging efficiency and compressive strength development. The results were promising with more than 110 lbf/100 ft of static gel strength in 10 minutes and compressive strength development of 1,000 psi within 24 hours at low surface temperature. In addition, a transition time (TT) with on-off-on test demonstrated more faster gel strength development was developed when the reduction of the shear rate and regained pumpable with reapplication of shear. In one of the wells, total losses were encountered while drilling across surface section. The lightweight high-performance thixotropic solution was pumped for the first time worldwide, proved that the innovative lost circulation solution was effective in curing the losses, and enabled the operator to continue drilling the section to TD. This case study demonstrates that the engineered system is effective in curing losses and reducing nonproductive time. The unique properties of more faster gel strength and enhanced compressive strength make this system more effective for treating a different types of lost circulation scenarios during drilling (Jadhav and Patil, 2018). New high-performance lightweight thixotropic cement lost circulation solution exhibits strong performance in curing total losses and establishing well integrity with reliability.
Ngo Vi, Lan (Schlumberger) | Khobchit, Wanwarang (Schlumberger) | Teerachotmongkol, Teerawat (Schlumberger) | Mohammad, Zayyan (Schlumberger) | Abbasgholipour, Ali (Schlumberger) | Jiratawaree, Sanyapong (PTTEP) | Tungperachaikul, Thanakorn (PTTEP) | Amranand, Sorawit (PTTEP) | Soontarerat, Apimuk (PTTEP) | Akeratchataphun, Yindee (PTTEP) | Udomsak, Adiruj (PTTEP) | Chantimapong, Atthawat (PTTEP)
Abstract This project drilled in Sin Phu Horm field. The main challenge in this field is the formation. The 8.5-in section is designed to drill through the hard and abrasive sandstone formation (known as Nam Phong formation) with unconfined compressive strength (UCS) between 6,000 and 24,000 psi and peak up to 55,000 psi. Multiple bit runs and heavy set of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits were observed in the offset wells with slow rate of penetration (ROP) and short intervals, which resulted in a high drilling cost. In the offset runs, the average interval was observed between 200 and 300 meters and average on-bottom ROP ranged from 2 to 8 m/hr. Worn cutters were the main dull characteristic in the offset PDC bits and the bits were pulled out of hole due to slow ROP. Due to the challenging formation, the goal was to increase the interval per bit run and ROP which resulted to reduce the number of bit trips and drilling cost. Looking at the dull grading of the offset PDC bits, it was obvious that the slow ROP was caused by the cutters worn by the abrasive and hard Nam Phong formation. The fixed-cutter PDC bits were run in the offset wells and worn cutters were observed in the shoulder area. The worn portion of the cutter occurred only in the exposed side, while the portion in the cutter pocket remained intact. Utilizing the portion in the cutter pocket helps to prolong cutter life, increase the ROP, and bit life longevity. Thus, it can help to reduce undesired bit trips. Based on the worn cutter observation, the new design of the 8.5-in PDC bit equipped with innovative 360 rolling cutter (RC) bit was proposed. A comprehensive vibration simulation drilling parameters roadmap were provided to minimize shock and vibration. Two bits were run with rotary steerable BHA to drill Nam Phong formation in the field. The first bit drilled 431 meters at an average ROP of 6.8 m/hr and the second bit drilled 391 meters at an average ROP of 5.5 m/hr. Two runs using the 360 RC bits drilled 822 meters in total of 1,236 meters entire interval of Nam Phong formation, which was equivalent to 66%, achieving the operator's goal while saving 2.2 days solely from two runs of RC bit. This success increased the operator's confidence to run 360 RC bits in the subsequent wells to reduce the number of bit trips and increase the ROP. This paper will discuss the application and evolution of 360 RC bit, along with the result achieved by the bit fitted equipped with this cutter in Thailand onshore.