Not enough data to create a plot.
Try a different view from the menu above.
Calgary-based Tourmaline Oil Corp. announced today that it is acquiring Black Swan Energy in an all-stock deal valued at CAD $1.1 billion. The transaction is set to boost Tourmaline's output by 50,000 BOE/D and the company expects to average around 500,000 BOE/D by mid-2022. The operator said the Black Swan acquisition is one of several it has made recently to become the largest producer in the north Montney Shale area of British Columbia. Black Swan's 231,000-acre position gives Tourmaline an estimated 1,600 horizontal drilling locations and proven and probable reserves of 491.9 million BOE. Tourmaline said in its announcement that Black Swan has not booked material reserves in other areas that it sees as having high potential and complementary to its existing footprint.
Pembina Pipeline will acquire a 50% stake in the proposed $2.4-billion Cedar LNG Project to develop the floating LNG facility in British Columbia in partnership with indigenous group, the Haisla Nation. The pipeline operator expects to invest about $90 million into Cedar LNG over the next 24 months, including costs to acquire its interest in the project as well as development costs prior to the final investment decision expected sometime in 2023. The company, which will acquire the equity interests in Cedar LNG from PTE Cedar LP and Delfin Midstream Inc., will operate the project going forward. Haisla will own the remaining 50% stake. Pembina has been busy of late.
This issue marks the debut of the Hydraulic Fracturing Operations feature in JPT. While hydraulic fracturing has long been a feature topic, this year, we are branching this major area of interest into both this feature and a Hydraulic Fracturing Modeling feature, which will appear in the November issue of the magazine. For this issue, reviewer Nabila Lazreq of ADNOC has selected three papers that reflect industry efforts to achieve new goals in production and sustainability. Paper 201450 investigates the potential of natural gas (NG) foam fracturing fluid to reduce the major water requirements seen in stimulation. The authors write that such requirements can be reduced up to 80% in some cases by the use of NG foams.
Abstract Drilling in deep high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) abrasive sandstone pose significant challenges: low rate of penetration (ROP), bit wear, differential sticking, and wellbore instability issues. These issues are magnified when attempting to drill long laterals in the direction of minimum stress. This paper focuses on the use of Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) analytics to improve ROP. MPD is normally used to help drilling in formations with narrow mud weight window, it achieves this by controlling the surface backpressure to keep the annular pressure in the wellbore above the pore pressure and below the fracture gradient. One key benefit of using MPD is that high mud weight is no longer required, since the Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) is going to be managed to maintain the overbalance. An example of a well that was drilled using MPD solely for ROP improvement is presented in this paper. This well achieved almost double the ROP of a control well, which was drilled in the same formation with no MPD. Essentially most of the drilling parameters used, which include, pump rate, revolution per minute (RPM), weight on bit (WOB), and other drilling practices, are controlled by the people on the rig. Incorporating AI analytics in the equation, help minimizes human intervention and could achieve further improvement in ROP. After the ROP improvement observed while using MPD, both technologies were combined in a well drilling the same formation. An example is presented for the well drilled using both technologies.
Kalhor Mohammadi, Mojtaba (International Drilling Fluids) | Taraghikhah, Shervin (International Drilling Fluids) | Karimi Rad, Mohammad Saeed (International Drilling Fluids) | Tahmasbi Nowtaraki, Koroush (International Drilling Fluids)
Abstract Developing high-performance environmentally friendly drilling fluids is always a requirement by oil and gas operators to reduce the waste management associated cost with the drilling fluid treatment and disposal. Conventional water-based drilling fluid is formulated with the brine-based polymer which consists of sodium and potassium chloride salts to improve the performance of the polymer and also providing clay inhibition in reactive clay and shale. This paper describes the development of nanotechnology-based drilling fluid to replace salt from the conventional application. Nano Based Low Saline Water Based Mud (NBLS-WBM) was formulated and developed based on laboratory experiments. Different nano additives with different concentrations were evaluated and the optimum concentration was selected to reduce the sodium and potassium chloride salts concentration to almost zero. The rheological properties and fluid loss were measured according to the API standard before and after hot rolling. Also, HPHT fluid loss, lubricity, and shale inhibition were evaluated. All the results were compared with sodium salt-saturated and potassium-based polymer muds. Laboratory evaluation of NBLS-WBM indicated that sodium salt concentration can be reduced considerably up to 5% W/V and potassium chloride can be eliminated by adding 1% W/W of nano additive. The rheological properties including plastic viscosity and yield point were constant and stable after hot rolling 16 hours at 250 °F. Also, Clay inhibition improved significantly up to 95% recovery comparing with conventional water-based polymer mud. Although the application of nanotechnology to improve the performance of conventional water-based drilling fluid was studied by many researchers, it is the novelty of this research to reduce the salt concentration and remove it to develop the new generation of salt-free water-based drilling fluid with economical consideration and lower environmental impact.
Woodside has decided to exit its 50% nonoperated participating interest in the proposed Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (KLNG) development, located in British Columbia, Canada. The exit will include the divestment or wind-up and restoration of assets, leases, and agreements covering the 480 km Pacific Trail Pipeline route and the site for the proposed LNG facility at Bish Cove. Project operator Chevron announced its plan to divest its 50% interest in KLNG in December 2019. Woodside said it will work with Chevron to protect the project's value during the exit. The costs associated with the decision to exit KLNG are expected to affect 2021 net profit after tax up to $60 million.
Abstract The Thunder Horse Field targets Middle Miocene deepwater turbiditic reservoirs. Despite of being prolific, the mapping of the ~180 m thick, partly amalgamated reservoir sandstones is challenging. Seismic quality is reduced by the presence of salt structures. The salt overburden and high formation pressure requires the use of heavy mud weights and oil-based drilling fluids, which limit the resolution and interpretation potential of borehole image logs (BHI). Halokinetic movements caused significant post-depositional deformation of the already complex gravity- driven sediment stack and the reservoir beds drape against an E-W oriented salt wall. Consequently, the assessment and removal of the structural dip component is not trivial and the evaluation of paleo-transport directions is considerably more complicated compared to undisturbed deepwater reservoirs. The intention of this paper is to bring the main results from Henry et al. (2018) into context with the eigenvector methodology from Ruehlicke et al. (2019) and to emphasize its value for reservoir characterization.
Abstract Assessment of effective mechanical properties such as elastic properties and brittleness can be challenging in the presence of complex rock composition, pore structure, and spatial distribution of minerals, especially in the absence of acoustic measurements. Conventional methods such as effective medium modeling, are not reliable for assessments of mechanical properties in complex formations such as carbonates, because solid skeleton of carbonates does not consist of granular minerals with ideal shapes. The effective medium models also overlook both the spatial distribution of petrophysical properties, and the coupled hydraulic and mechanical (HM) processes, which causes significant uncertainties in geomechanical evaluations. The objective of this paper is to develop a numerical method to enhance assessment of effective mechanical properties of anisotropic and heterogenous carbonate formations by modeling the variation of effective stress and the evolution of corresponding strain. The developed method takes into account the coupled HM processes, the realistic spatial distribution of rock inclusions (i.e., rock fabrics), dynamic fluid flow, pore pressure, and pore structure. To achieve this objective, we develop a pore-scale numerical simulator by satisfying conservation equations and considering the coupling among relevant HM phenomena. We adopt peridynamic theory to discretize the micro-scale medium. The inputs to our numerical modeling include pore-scale images of rock samples as well as mechanical and hydraulic properties of each rock inclusion. We perform image processing on micro-CT scan images of rock samples to obtain a realistic micro-scale structure of both rock matrix (i.e., concentration, spatial distribution, and shape of rock constituents) and pore space. We then assign realistic mechanical and hydraulic properties to each rock constituent within the pore-scale medium. The outcomes of numerical modeling include the variation of effective stress and the evolution of corresponding strain by honoring the variability in mechanical/hydraulic properties of rock inclusions caused by their spatial distribution, pore pressure, pore structure, natural fractures, and dynamic fluid flow at the micro-scale domain. We then compare the outcomes of numerical models with the mechanical properties estimated based on effective medium models.
Abstract Logging-while-drilling (LWD) acoustic imaging technology emerged in the past few years as a low-cost solution to detect and characterize fractures in high-angle and horizontal wells. This type of imaging tool works in either water-based or oil-based drilling fluids, making it a competitive choice for logging unconventional shale wells, which are often drilled with oil-based mud. With high-resolution acoustic amplitude and travel-time images, fractures, bedding planes and other drilling-related features can be identified, providing new insights for reservoir characterization and wellbore geomechanics. The quality of LWD acoustic images however is directly affected by drilling parameters and borehole conditions, as the received signal is sensitive to formation property and wellbore changes at the same time. As a result, interpretation can be quite challenging, and caution needs to be taken to differentiate actual formation property changes from drilling-related features or image artifacts. This paper demonstrates the complexity of interpreting LWD acoustic images through multiple case studies. The examples were collected from vertical and horizontal wells in multiple shale plays in North America, with the images logged and processed by different service companies. Depending on the geology and borehole conditions, various features and artifacts were observed from the images, which can be used as a reference for geologists and petrophysicists. Images acquired with different drilling parameters were compared to show the effect of drilling conditions on image quality. Recommendations and best practices of using this new type of image log are also shared.
Se, Yegor (Chevron ETC) | Sullivan, Michael (Chevron Canada) | Tohidi, Vahid (Chevron Canada) | Lazorek, Michael (Chevron Canada) | Attia, Ahmed (Ziebel US) | Chen, Phillip (Ziebel US) | Abbassi, Linda (Openfield Technology) | Schoepf, Virginie (Openfield Technology)
Abstract The well design with long lateral section and multistage frac completion has been proven effective for development of the unconventional reservoirs. Top-tier well production in unconventional reservoir can be achieved by optimizing hydraulic completion and stimulation design, which necessitates an understanding of flow behavior and hydrocarbon contribution allocation. Historically, conventional production logging (PL) surveys were scarcely used in unconventional reservoirs due to limited and often expensive conveyance options, as well as complicated and non-unique inflow interpretations caused by intricate and changing multiphase flow behavior (Prakash et al., 2008). The assessment of the cluster performance gradually shifted towards distributed acoustic (DAS) and temperature (DTS) sensing methods using fiber optics cable, which continuously gained popularity in the industry. Fiber optics measurements were anticipated to generate production profiles along the lateral with sub-cluster resolution to assist with optimal completions design selection. Encapsulation of the fiber in the carbon rod provided alternative conveyance method for retrievable DFO measurements, which gained popularity due to cost-efficiency and operational convenience (Gardner et al., 2015). Recent utilization of micro-sensor technology in PL tools, (Abbassi et al, 2018, Donovan et al, 2019) allowed dramatic reduction of the size and the weight of the PL toolstring without compromising wellbore coverage by sensor array. Such ultra-compact PL toolstring could utilize the carbon rod as a taxi and provide mutually beneficial and innovative surveillance combination to evaluate production profile in the unconventional reservoirs. Array holdup and velocity measurements across wellbore from PL would reveal more details regarding multi-phase flow behavior, which could be used for cross-validation and constraining of production inflow interpretation based on DFO measurements. This paper summarizes the lessons learned, key observations and best practices from the unique 4 well program, where such innovative combination was tested in gas rich Duvernay shale reservoir.