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Romer, Michael Christopher (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company) | Spiecker, Matt (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company) | Hall, Tim James (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company) | Dieudonne, Raphaël (Hydro Leduc) | Porel, François (Hydro Leduc) | Jerzak, Laurent (Hydro Leduc) | Ortiz, Santos Daniel (KSWC Engineering & Machining) | King, George Randall (KSWC Engineering & Machining) | Gohil, Kartikkumar Jaysingbhai (KSWC Engineering & Machining) | Tapie, William (Deteq Services) | Peters, Michael (MTI) | Curkan, Brandon Alexander (C-FER Technologies)
Summary What do you do after plunger lifting? What if lift gas is not readily available or your liquid level is around a bend? What can you do with a well that has low reservoir pressure, liquid-loading trouble, and fragile economics? Do you give up on the remaining reserves and advance to plugging and abandonment? These questions were considered, and the answers were found to be unsatisfactory. This paper will describe the development and testing of a novel wireline-deployed positive-displacement pump (WLPDP) that was invented to address these challenges. Artificial-lift (AL) pumps have historically been developed with high-producing oil wells in mind. Pumps for late-life wells have mostly been repurposed from these applications and optimized for reduced liquids production. The WLPDP development began with the constraints of late-life wells with the goal of addressing reserves that conventional AL methods would struggle to produce profitably. Internal and industry-wide data were first reviewed to determine what WLPDP specifications would address the majority of late-life wells. The primary target was gas wells, although “stripper” oil wells were also considered. The resulting goal was a pump that could deliver 30 BFPD from 10,000-ft true vertical depth (TVD). The pumping system must be cost-effective to be a viable solution, which led to several design boundaries. Pumps fail and replacement costs can drive economics, so the system must be deployable/retrievable through tubing. The majority of new onshore wells have tortuous geometries, so the system must be able to function at the desired depth despite them—without damaging associated downhole components. The system should use as many off-the-shelf components and known technologies as possible to reduce development costs and encourage integration. Finally, the pump should be able to handle a variety of wellbore liquids, produced gases, and limited solids. The WLPDP was designed to meet the established specifications and boundary conditions. The 2.25-in.-outer-diameter (OD) pump is deployed through tubing. and powered with a standard wireline (WL) logging cable. The cable powers a direct-current (DC) motor that drives an axial piston pump. The piston pump circulates a dielectric oil between two bladders by means of a switching valve. When each bladder expands, it pressurizes inlet-wellbore liquids, pushing them out of the well. Produced gas flows in the annulus between the tubing and production casing. The intake/discharge check valves and bladders are the only internal pump components that contact the wellbore fluids. The WLPDP system was able to meet the design-volume/pressure specifications in all orientations, as confirmed through laboratory and integration testing. Targeted studies were conducted to verify/improve check-valve reliability, gas handling, elastomer suitability, and cable-corrosion resistance. The results of these and related studies will be discussed in the paper.
Summary The objective of the present work is to propose a methodology to predict pressure rise due to the thermal expansion of trapped liquids using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The present study also provides a comparison between the various methods used for pressure buildup calculations that are widely used in oil and gas industries. A comparison of standard thermodynamic calculations with transient 3D CFD analysis reveals that transient CFD analyses can provide deeper insights on the temperature and velocity fields in trapped volumes. The application of the proposed method is not just restricted to a single component/equipment in the subsea field but can be applied to any trapped volume in subsea equipment. In the present study, the pressure buildup in a downhole (DH) port of a subsea Christmas tree (XT) is presented for demonstration purposes; the same methodology can be extended to other equipment or regions of interest. Because of a lack of literature on the topic of pressure rise due to thermal expansion of trapped fluids, engineers are forced to make several assumptions without knowing the effect of each term or parameter on the final pressure calculated. In this study, the percentage change/variation of the final pressure using the various forms of a standard analytical pressure rise equation is also discussed in detail. Introduction Modeling pressure rise due to thermal expansion of trapped liquids has become an inevitable task in every subsea engineering project. The methodology adopted by various engineers at different stages of projects varies significantly, and there exist huge discrepancies/ mismatch in the predicted values of pressure rise. The pressure rise in trapped volume can occur in any subsea/surface equipment, ranging from casing hangers, production tubing, subsea test trees, XTs, manifolds, subsea jumpers, pipeline end terminations (PLET), pipeline end manifolds, workover systems such as landing strings, lower riser package, emergency disconnect package, surface flow trees, and other subsea and topside equipment. The pressure buildup in critical areas of the equipment could lead to a local failure of components such as elastomeric/metal seals, and this could compromise the system integrity. The plastic collapse of a pressure-containing component due to high pressure rise can be disastrous in a subsea environment.
Summary Working in the oil industry comes with unique challenges and risks, and so extra precautions and safety measures coupled with strict environmental compliance must be applied. Contrary to the common belief that strict safety enforcement could hinder smooth operations, the deployment of new technologies and enhanced solutions of processes has enabled operational excellence (OE) and improved safety performance. In this paper, we demonstrate health, safety, and environment performance improvement through implementing two main initiatives: The first category has initiatives that require less intervention or personnel; for example, the deployment of cableless pressure sensors or permanent monitoring systems in key wells to ensure continuous real-time pressure data to monitor reservoir pressure. The second category has initiatives that mitigate traditional health, safety, and environment risks; for example, through use of multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) to collect accurate and continuous flow measurements instead of traditional well testing. Optimizing operations costs while maintaining a high-level of safety is achieved through a dedicated team working in a state-of-the-art Production Operations Surveillance Hub (POSH), which enables the monitoring of wells in real time, making production optimization decisions, and ensuring a high level of well integrity via close monitoring of wells and assets.
Nicholson, A. Kirby (Pressure Diagnostics Ltd.) | Bachman, Robert C. (Pressure Diagnostics Ltd.) | Scherz, R. Yvonne (Endeavor Energy Resources) | Hawkes, Robert V. (Cordax Evaluation Technologies Inc.)
Abstract Pressure and stage volume are the least expensive and most readily available data for diagnostic analysis of hydraulic fracturing operations. Case history data from the Midland Basin is used to demonstrate how high-quality, time-synchronized pressure measurements at a treatment and an offsetting shut-in producing well can provide the necessary input to calculate fracture geometries at both wells and estimate perforation cluster efficiency at the treatment well. No special wellbore monitoring equipment is required. In summary, the methods outlined in this paper quantifies fracture geometries as compared to the more general observations of Daneshy (2020) and Haustveit et al. (2020). Pressures collected in Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests (DFITs), select toe-stage full-scale fracture treatments, and offset observation wells are used to demonstrate a simple workflow. The pressure data combined with Volume to First Response (Vfr) at the observation well is used to create a geometry model of fracture length, width, and height estimates at the treatment well as illustrated in Figure 1. The producing fracture length of the observation well is also determined. Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) techniques, a Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture propagation model and offset well Fracture Driven Interaction (FDI) pressures are used to quantify hydraulic fracture dimensions. The PTA-derived Farfield Fracture Extension Pressure, FFEP, concept was introduced in Nicholson et al. (2019) and is summarized in Appendix B of this paper. FFEP replaces Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure, ISIP, for use in net pressure calculations. FFEP is determined and utilized in both DFITs and full-scale fracture inter-stage fall-off data. The use of the Primary Pressure Derivative (PPD) to accurately identify FFEP simplifies and speeds up the analysis, allowing for real time treatment decisions. This new technique is called Rapid-PTA. Additionally, the plotted shape and gradient of the observation-well pressure response can identify whether FDI's are hydraulic or poroelastic before a fracture stage is completed and may be used to change stage volume on the fly. Figure 1: Fracture Geometry Model with FDI Pressure Matching Case studies are presented showing the full workflow required to generate the fracture geometry model. The component inputs for the model are presented including a toe-stage DFIT, inter-stage pressure fall-off, and the FDI pressure build-up. We discuss how to optimize these hydraulic fractures in hindsight (look-back) and what might have been done in real time during the completion operations given this workflow and field-ready advanced data-handling capability. Hydraulic fracturing operations can be optimized in real time using new Rapid-PTA techniques for high quality pressure data collected on treating and observation wells. This process opens the door for more advanced geometry modeling and for rapid design changes to save costs and improve well productivity and ultimate recovery.
Abstract Characterization of hydraulic fracture system in multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW) is one of the key steps in well spacing optimization of tight and shale reservoirs. Different methods have been proposed in the industry including core-through, micro-seismic, off-set pressure data monitoring during hydraulic fracturing, pressure depletion mapping, rate-transient analysis, pressure-transient analysis, and pressure interference test. Pressure interference test for a production and monitoring well pair includes flowing the production well at a stable rate while keeping the monitoring well shut-in and recording its pressure. In this study, the coupled flow of gas in hydraulic fractures and matrix systems during pressure interference test is modeled using an analytical method. The model is based on Laplace transform combined with pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time. The model is validated against numerical simulation to make sure the inter-well communication test is reasonably represented. Two key parameters were introduced and calculated with time using the analytical model including pressure drawdown ratio and pressure decline ratio. The model is applied to two field cases from Montney formation. In this case, two wells in the gas condensate region of Montney were selected for a pressure interference test. The monitoring well was equipped with downhole gauges. As the producing well was opened for production, the bottom-hole pressure of the monitoring well started declining at much lower rate than the production well. The pressure decline rate in the monitoring well eventually approached that of the producing well after days of production. This whole process was modeled using the analytical model of this study by adjusting the conductivity of the communicating fractures between the well pairs. This study provides a practical analytical tool for quantitative analysis of the interference test in MFHWs. This model can be integrated with other tools for improved characterization of hydraulic fracture systems in tight and shale reservoirs.
Brinkley, Kourtney (Devon Energy) | Ingle, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Haffener, Jackson (Devon Energy) | Chapman, Philip (Devon Energy) | Baker, Scott (Devon Energy) | Hart, Eric (Devon Energy) | Haustveit, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Roberts, Jon (Devon Energy)
Abstract This case study details the use of Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) to improve the characterization of fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation of inter-connected stacked pay in the South Texas Eagle Ford Shale. The SWPM workflow utilizes surface pressure gauges to detect hydraulically induced fracture arrivals athorizontal monitor locations adjacent to the stimulated wellbore (Haustveit et al. 2020). A stacked and staggered development in Dewitt County provided the opportunity to jointly evaluateprimary completion and recompletion efforts spanning three reservoir target intervals. Fivemonitor wells at varying distances across the unit were employed for SWPM during the stimulation of four wells. An operational overview, analysis of techniques, correlation with seismic attributes, image log interpretations, and fracture model calibration are provided. Outputs from this workflow allow for a refined analysis ofthe overall completion strategy. The high-density, five well monitor array recorded a total of 160 fracture arrivals at varying vertical and lateral distances, with far-field fracture arrivalsprovidingsignificant insight into propagation rates and geometry. Apronounced trend occurred in both arrival frequency and volumes pumped as monitor locations increased in distance from the treatment well. Specific to target zone isolation, it was identified that traversing vertically in section through a high stress interval yielded a 30% reduction inarrival frequency. An indirect relationship between horizontal distance and arrival frequency was also observed when monitoring from the same interval. A decrease in fracture arrivals from 70% down to 8% was realized as offset distance increased from 120 to 1,700 ft. The results from this study have proven to be instrumental in guiding interdisciplinary discussion. Assessing fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation, particularly in the co-development of a stacked pay reservoir, is paramount to the determination of proper completion volume, perforation design, and well spacing. Leveraging the observations of SWPM ultimately provides greater confidence in field development strategy and economic optimization.
Abstract Market-induced production shut-downs and restarts offer us an opportunity to gather step-rate and shut-in data for pressure transient analysis (PTA) and rate transient analysis (RTA). In this study, we present a unified transient analysis (UTA) to combine PTA and RTA in a single framework. In this new approach continuous production data, step-rate data, shut-in data and re-start data can be visualized and analyzed in a single superposition plot, which can be used to estimate both and infer formation pore pressure in a holistic manner by utilizing all available data. Most importantly, we show that traditional log-log and square root of time plots can lead to false interpretation of the termination of linear-flow or power-law behavior. Field cases are presented to demonstrate the superiority of the newly introduced superposition plot, along with discussion on the calibration of long-term bottom-hole pressure with short-term measurements.
Abstract With a recent trend in increased infill well development in the Midland basin and other unconventional plays, it has been shown that depletion has a significant impact on hydraulic fracture propagation. This is largely because production drawdown causes in-situ stress changes, resulting in asymmetric fracture growth toward the depleted regions. In turn, this can have a negative impact on production capacity. For the initial part of this study, an infill child well was drilled and completed adjacent to a parent well that had been producing for two years. Due to drilling difficulties, the child well was steered to a new target zone located 125 feet above the original target. However, relative to the original target, treatment data from the new zone indicated abnormal treatment responses leading to a study to evaluate the source of these variations and subsequent mitigation. The initial study was conducted using a pore pressure estimation derived from drill bit geomechanics data to investigate depletion effects on the infill child well. The pore pressure results were compared to the child well treatment responses and bottom hole pressure measurements in the parent well. Following the initial study, additional hydraulic fracture modeling studies were conducted on a separate pad to investigate depletion around the infill wells, determine optimal well spacing for future wells given the level of depletion, and optimize treatment designs for future wells in similar depletion scenarios. A depletion model workflow was implemented based on integrating hydraulic fracture modeling and reservoir analytics for future infill pad development. The geomechanical properties were calibrated by DFIT results and pressure matching of the parent well treatments for the in-situ virgin conditions. Parent well fracture geometries were used in an RTA for an analytical approach of estimating drainage area of the parent wells. These were then applied to a depletion profile in the hydraulic fracture model for well spacing analysis and treatment design sensitivities. Results of the initial study indicated that stages in the new, higher interval had higher breakdown pressures than the lower interval. Additionally, the child well drilled in the lower interval had normal breakdown pressures in line with the parent well treatments. This suggests that treatment differences in the wells were ultimately due to depletion of the offset parent well. Based on the modeling efforts, optimal infill well spacing was determined based on the on-production time of the parent wells. The optimal treatment designs were also determined under the same conditions to minimize offset frac hits and unnecessary completion costs. This case study presents the use of a multi-disciplinary approach for well spacing and treatment optimization. The integration of a novel method of estimating pore pressure and depletion modeling workflows were used in an inventive way to understand depletion effects on future development.