|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Suarez-Rivera, Roberto (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | Panse, Rohit (W. D. Von Gonten Laboratories) | Sovizi, Javad (Baker Hughes) | Dontsov, Egor (ResFrac Corporation) | LaReau, Heather (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Suter, Kirke (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Blose, Matthew (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Hailu, Thomas (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.) | Koontz, Kyle (BP America Production Company, BPx Energy Inc.)
Abstract Predicting fracture behavior is important for well placement design and for optimizing multi-well development production. This requires the use of fracturing models that are calibrated to represent field measurements. However, because hydraulic fracture models include complex physics and uncertainties and have many variables defining these, the problem of calibrating modeling results with field responses is ill-posed. There are more model variables than can be changed than field observations to constrain these. It is always possible to find a calibrated model that reproduces the field data. However, the model is not unique and multiple matching solutions exist. The objective and scope of this work is to define a workflow for constraining these solutions and obtaining a more representative model for forecasting and optimization. We used field data from a multi-pad project in the Delaware play, with actual pump schedules, frac sequence, and time delays as used in the field, for all stages and all wells. We constructed a hydraulic fracturing model using high-confidence rock properties data and calibrated the model to field stimulation treatment data varying the two model variables with highest uncertainty: tectonic strain and average leak-off coefficient, while keeping all other model variables fixed. By reducing the number of adjusting model variables for calibration, we significantly lower the potential for over-fitting. Using an ultra-fast hydraulic fracturing simulator, we solved a global optimization problem to minimize the mismatch between the ISIPs and treatment pressures measured in the field and simulated by the model, for all the stages and all wells. This workflow helps us match the dominant ISIP trends in the field data and delivers higher confidence predictions in the regional stress. However, the uncertainty in the fracture geometry is still large. We also compared these results with traditional workflows that rely on selecting representative stages for calibration to field data. Results show that our workflow defines a better global optimum that best represents the behavior of all stages on all wells, and allows us to provide higher-confidence predictions of fracturing results for subsequent pads. We then used this higher confidence model to conduct sensitivity analysis for improving the well placement in subsequent pads and compared the results of the model predictions with the actual pad results.
Brinkley, Kourtney (Devon Energy) | Ingle, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Haffener, Jackson (Devon Energy) | Chapman, Philip (Devon Energy) | Baker, Scott (Devon Energy) | Hart, Eric (Devon Energy) | Haustveit, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Roberts, Jon (Devon Energy)
Abstract This case study details the use of Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) to improve the characterization of fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation of inter-connected stacked pay in the South Texas Eagle Ford Shale. The SWPM workflow utilizes surface pressure gauges to detect hydraulically induced fracture arrivals athorizontal monitor locations adjacent to the stimulated wellbore (Haustveit et al. 2020). A stacked and staggered development in Dewitt County provided the opportunity to jointly evaluateprimary completion and recompletion efforts spanning three reservoir target intervals. Fivemonitor wells at varying distances across the unit were employed for SWPM during the stimulation of four wells. An operational overview, analysis of techniques, correlation with seismic attributes, image log interpretations, and fracture model calibration are provided. Outputs from this workflow allow for a refined analysis ofthe overall completion strategy. The high-density, five well monitor array recorded a total of 160 fracture arrivals at varying vertical and lateral distances, with far-field fracture arrivalsprovidingsignificant insight into propagation rates and geometry. Apronounced trend occurred in both arrival frequency and volumes pumped as monitor locations increased in distance from the treatment well. Specific to target zone isolation, it was identified that traversing vertically in section through a high stress interval yielded a 30% reduction inarrival frequency. An indirect relationship between horizontal distance and arrival frequency was also observed when monitoring from the same interval. A decrease in fracture arrivals from 70% down to 8% was realized as offset distance increased from 120 to 1,700 ft. The results from this study have proven to be instrumental in guiding interdisciplinary discussion. Assessing fracture geometry and propagation during stimulation, particularly in the co-development of a stacked pay reservoir, is paramount to the determination of proper completion volume, perforation design, and well spacing. Leveraging the observations of SWPM ultimately provides greater confidence in field development strategy and economic optimization.
Abstract A breakthrough patent-pending pressure diagnostic technique using offset sealed wellbores as monitoring sources was introduced at the 2020 Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference. This technique quantifies various hydraulic fracture parameters using only a surface gauge mounted on the sealed wellbore(s). The initial concept, operational processes, and analysis techniques were developed and deployed by Devon Energy. By scaling and automating the process, Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) is now available to the industry as a repeatable workflow that greatly reduces analysis time and improves visualizations to aid data interpretations. The authors successfully automated the SWPM analysis procedure using a cloud-based software platform designed to ingest, process, and analyze high-frequency hydraulic fracturing data. The minimum data for the analysis consists of the standard frac treatment data combined with the high-resolution pressure gauge data for each sealed wellbore. The team developed machine learning algorithms to identify the key events required by a sealed wellbore pressure analysis: the start, end, and magnitude of each pressure response detected in the sealed wellbore(s) while actively fracturing offset wells. The result is a rapid, repeatable SWPM analysis that minimizes individual interpretation biases. The primary deliverables from SWPM analyses are the Volumes to First Response (VFR) on a per stage basis. In many projects, multiple pressure responses within a single stage have been observed, which provides valuable insight into fracture network complexity and cluster/stage efficiency. Various methods are used to visualize and statistically analyze the data. A scalable process facilitates creating a statistical database for comparing completion designs that can be segmented by play, formation, or other geological variations. Completion designs can then be optimized based upon the observed well responses. With enough observations and based on certain spacings, probabilities of when to expect fracture interactions could be assigned for different plays.
Abstract In this paper, the authors examine the impacts of natural fractures on the distribution of slurry in a well with a permanent fiber installation and drill bit geomechanics data. Additionally, they propose a framework for further investigation of natural fractures on slurry distribution. As part of the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Laboratory (MSEEL), the operator monitored the drilling of a horizontal Marcellus Formation well with drill bit geomechanics, and subsequent stimulation phase with a DAS/DTS permanent fiber installation. Prior to the completion, the authors used an analytical model to examine the theoretical distribution of slurry between perforation clusters from a geomechanics framework. A perforation placement scheme was then developed to minimize the stress difference between clusters and to segment stages by the intensity of natural fractures while conforming to standard operating procedures for the operator's other completions. The operator initially began completing the well with the geomechanics-informed perforation placement plan while monitoring the treatment distribution with DAS/DTS in real time. The operator observed several anomalous stages with treating pressures high enough to cause operational concerns. The operator, fiber provider, and drill bit geomechanics provider reviewed the anomalous stages’ treatment data, DAS/DTS data, and geomechanics data and developed a working hypothesis. They believed that perforation clusters placed in naturally fractured rock were preferentially taking the treatment slurry. This phenomenon appeared to cause other clusters within the stage to sand-off or become dormant prematurely, resulting in elevated friction pressure. This working hypothesis was used to predict upcoming stages within the well that would be difficult to treat. Another perforation placement plan was developed for the second half of the well to avoid perforating natural fractures as an attempt to mitigate operational issues due to natural fracture dominated distribution. Over the past several years, the industry's growing understanding of geomechanical and well construction variability has created new limited-entry design considerations to optimize completion economics and reduce the variability in cluster slurry volumes. Completion engineers working in naturally fractured fields, such as the Marcellus, should consider the impact the natural fractures have on slurry distribution when optimizing their limited-entry designs and stage plan.
Abstract Well spacing and stimulation design are amongst the highest impact design variables which can dictate the economics of an unconventional development. The objective of this paper is to showcase a numerical simulation workflow, with emphasis on the hydraulic fracture simulation methodology, which optimizes well spacing and completion design simultaneously. The workflow is deployed using Cloud Computing functionality, a step-change over past simulation methods. Workflow showcased in this paper covers the whole cycle of 1) petrophysical and geomechanical modeling, 2) hydraulic fracture simulations and 3) reservoir simulation modeling, followed by 4) design optimization using advanced non-linear methods. The focus of this paper is to discuss the hydraulic fracture simulation methods which are an integral part of this workflow. The workflow is deployed on a dataset from a multi-well pad completed in late 2018 targeting two landing zones in the Vaca Muerta shale play. On calibrated petrophysical and geomechanical model, hydraulic fracture simulations are conducted to map the stimulated rock around the wellbores. Finely gridded base model is utilized to capture the property variation between layers to estimate fracture height. The 3d discrete fracture network (DFN) built for the acreage is utilized to pick the natural fracture characteristics of the layers intersected by the wellbores. The methodology highlights advances over the past modeling approaches by including the variation of discrete fracture network between layers. The hydraulic fracture model in conjunction with reservoir flow simulation is used for history matching the production data. On the history matched model, a design of experiments (DOE) simulation study is conducted to quantify the impact of a wide range of well spacing and stimulation design variables. These simulations are facilitated by the recent deployments of cloud computing. Cloud computing allows parallel running of hundreds of hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations, thereby allowing testing of many combinations of stimulation deigns and well spacing and reducing the effective run time from 3 months on a local machine to 1 week on the cloud. Output from the parallel simulations are fitted with a proxy model to finally select the well spacing and stimulation design variables that offer the minimum unit development cost i.e. capital cost-$ per EUR-bbl. The workflow illustrates that stimulation design and well spacing are interlinked to each other and need to be optimized simultaneously to maximize the economics of an unconventional asset. Using the workflow, the team identified development designs which increase EUR of a development area by 50-100% and reduce the unit development cost ($/bbl-EUR) by 10-30%.
Shahri, Mojtaba (Apache Corp.) | Tucker, Andrew (Apache Corp.) | Rice, Craig (Apache Corp.) | Lathrop, Zach (Apache Corp.) | Ratcliff, Dave (ResFrac) | McClure, Mark (ResFrac) | Fowler, Garrett (ResFrac)
Abstract In the last decade, we have observed major advancements in different modeling techniques for hydraulic fracturing propagation. Direct monitoring techniques such as fibre-optics can be used to calibrate these models and significantly enhance our understanding of subsurface processes. In this study, we present field monitoring observations indicating consistently oriented, planar fractures in an offset-well at different landing zones in the Permian basin. Frac hit counts, location, and timing statistics can be compiled from the data using offset wells at different distances and depths. The statistics can be used to calibrate a detailed three-dimensional fully coupled hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulator. In addition to these high-level observations, detailed fibre signatures such as strain response during frac arrival to the monitoring well, post shut-in frac propagation and frac speed degradation with length can be modeled using the simulator for further calibration purposes. Application to frac modeling calibration is presented through different case studies. The simulator was used to directly generate the ‘waterfall plot’ output from the fibre-optic under a variety of scenarios. The history match to the large, detailed synthetic fibre dataset provided exceptional model calibration, enabling a detailed description of the fracture geometry, and a high-confidence estimation of key model parameters. The detailed synthetic fibre data generated by the simulator were remarkably consistent with the actual data. This indicates a good consistency with classical analytical fracture mechanics predictions and further confirm the interpretation of planar fracture propagation. This study shows how careful integration of offset-well fibre-optic measurements can provide detailed characterization of fracture geometry, growth rate, and physics. The result is a detailed picture of hydraulic fracture propagation in the Midland Basin. The comparison of the waterfall plot simulations and data indicate that hydraulic fractures can, in fact, be very well modeled as nearly-linear cracks (the ‘planar fracture modeling’ approach).
Elsayed, Mahmoud (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | El-Husseiny, Ammar (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Corresponding author) | Kwak, Hyung (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Hussaini, Syed Rizwanullah (Saudi Aramco) | Mahmoud, Mohamed (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
Summary In-situ evaluation of fracture tortuosity (i.e., pore geometry complexity and roughness) and preferential orientation is crucial for fluid flow simulation and production forecast in subsurface water and hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is particularly significant for naturally fractured reservoirs or postacid fracturing because of the strong permeability anisotropy. However, such downhole in-situ characterization remains a challenge. This study presents a new method for evaluating fracture tortuosity and preferential orientation based on the pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. Such an approach provides diffusion tortuosity, τd, defined as the ratio of bulk fluid diffusion coefficient to the restricted diffusion coefficient in the porous media. In the PFG NMR technique, the magnetic field gradient can be applied in different directions, and therefore anisotropy in diffusion coefficient and τd can be evaluated. Three 3D printed samples, characterized by well controlled variable fracture tortuosity, one fractured sandstone, and three acidized carbonate samples with wormhole were used in this study. PFG NMR measurements were performed using both 2- and 12-MHz NMR instruments to obtain τd in the three different principal directions. The results obtained from the NMR measurements were compared with fracture tortuosity and preferential orientation determined from the microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) images of the samples. The results showed that τd increases as the fracture tortuosity and pore geometry complexity increases, showing good agreement with the image-based geometric tortuosity values. Moreover, the lowest τd values were found to coincide with the preferential direction of fracture surfaces and wormhole body for a given sample, whereas the maximum τd values correspond to the nonconnected pathway directions. These results suggest that the implantation of directional restricted diffusion measurements on the NMR well logging tools would offer a possibility of probing tortuosity and determining preferential fluid flow direction via direct downhole measurements.
Abstract The objective of this study was to perform an integrated analysis to gain insight for optimizing fracturing treatment and gas recovery from Marcellus shale. The analysis involved all the available data from a Marcellus Shale horizontal well which included vertical and lateral well logs, hydraulic fracture treatment design, microseismic, production logging, and production data. A commercial fracturing software was utilized to predict the hydraulic fracture properties based on the available vertical and lateral well logs data, diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT), fracture stimulation treatment data, and microseismic recordings during the fracturing treatment. The predicted hydraulic fracture properties were then used in a reservoir simulation model developed based on the Marcellus Shale properties to predict the production performance. In this study, the rock mechanical properties were estimated from the well log data. The minimum horizontal stress, instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP), process zone stress (PZS), and leak-off mechanism were determined from DFIT analysis. The stress conditions were then adjusted based on the results of microseismic interpretations. Subsequently, the results of the analyses were used in the fracturing software to predict the hydraulic fracture properties. Marcellus Shale properties and the predicted hydraulic fracture properties were used to develop a reservoir simulation model. Porosity, permeability, and the adsorption characteristics were estimated from the core plugs measurements and the well log data. The image logs were utilized to estimate the distribution of natural fractures (fissures). The relation between the formation permeability and the fracture conductivity and the net stress (geomechanical factors) were obtained from the core plugs measurements and published data. The predicted production performance was then compared against production history. The analysis of core data, image logs, and DFIT confirmed the presence of natural fractures in the reservoir. The formation properties and in-situ stress conditions were found to influence the hydraulic fracturing geometry. The hydraulic fracture properties are also impacted by stress shadowing and the net stress changes. The production logging tool results could not be directly related to the hydraulic fracture properties or natural fracture distribution. The inclusion of the stress shadowing, microseismic interpretations, and geomechanical factors provided a close agreement between the predicted production performance and the actual production performance of the well under study.
Abstract Multistage hydraulic fracturing is the common stimulation technique for shale formations. The treatment design, formation in-situ stress, and reservoir heterogeneity govern the fracture network propagation. Different techniques have been used to evaluate the fracture geometry and the completion efficiency including Chemical Tracers, Microseismic, Fiber Optics, and Production Logs. Most of these methods are post-fracture as well as time and cost intensive processes. The current study presents the use of fall-off data during and after stage fracturing to characterize producing surface area, permeability, and fracture conductivity. Shut-in data (15-30 minutes) was collected after each stage was completed. The fall-off data was processed first to remove the noise and water hammer effects. Log-Log derivative diagnostic plots were used to define the flow regime and the data were then matched with an analytical model to calculate producing surface area, permeability, and fracture conductivity. Diagnostic plots showed a unique signature of flow regimes. A long period of a spherical flow regime with negative half-slope was observed as an indication for limited entry flow either vertically or horizontally. A positive half-slope derivative represents a linear flow regime in an infinitely conductive tensile fracture. The quarter-slope derivative was observed in a bilinear flow regime that represents a finite conductivity fracture system. An extended radial flow regime was observed with zero slope derivative which represents a highly shear fractured network around the wellbore. For a long fall-off period, formation recharge may appear with a slope between unit and 1.5 slopes derivative, especially in over-pressured dry gas reservoirs. Analyzing fall-off data after stages are completed provides a free and real-time investigation method to estimate the fracture geometry and a measure of completion efficiency. Knowing the stage properties allows the reservoir engineer to build a simulation model to forecast the well performance and improve the well spacing.
Fakher, Sherif (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Elgahawy, Youssef (University of Calgary) | Abdelaal, Hesham (University of Lisbon) | Imqam, Abdulmohsin (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Abstract Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in shale reservoirs has been recently shown to increase oil recovery significantly from this unconventional oil and gas source. One of the most studied EOR methods in shale reservoirs is gas injection, with a focus on carbon Dioxide (CO2) mainly due to the ability to both enhance oil recovery and store the CO2 in the formation. Even though several shale plays have reported an increase in oil recovery using CO2 injection, in some cases this method failed severely. This research attempts to investigate the ability of the CO2 to mobilize crude oil from the three most prominent features in the shale reservoirs, including shale matrix, natural fractures, and hydraulically induced fracture. Shale cores with dimensions of 1 inch in diameter and approximately 1.5 inch in length were used in all experiments. The impact of CO2 soaking time and soaking pressure on the oil recovery were studied. The cores were analyzed to understand how and where the CO2 flowed inside the cores and which prominent feature resulted in the increase in oil recovery. Also, a pre-fractured core was used to run an experiment in order to understand the oil recovery potential from fractured reservoirs. Results showed that oil recovery occurred from the shale matrix, stimulation of natural fractures by the CO2, and from the hydraulic fractures with a large volume coming from the stimulated natural fractures. By understanding where the CO2 will most likely be most productive, proper design of the CO2 EOR in shale can be done in order to maximize recovery and avoid complications during injection and production which may lead to severe operational problems.