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Summary Working in the oil industry comes with unique challenges and risks, and so extra precautions and safety measures coupled with strict environmental compliance must be applied. Contrary to the common belief that strict safety enforcement could hinder smooth operations, the deployment of new technologies and enhanced solutions of processes has enabled operational excellence (OE) and improved safety performance. In this paper, we demonstrate health, safety, and environment performance improvement through implementing two main initiatives: The first category has initiatives that require less intervention or personnel; for example, the deployment of cableless pressure sensors or permanent monitoring systems in key wells to ensure continuous real-time pressure data to monitor reservoir pressure. The second category has initiatives that mitigate traditional health, safety, and environment risks; for example, through use of multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) to collect accurate and continuous flow measurements instead of traditional well testing. Optimizing operations costs while maintaining a high-level of safety is achieved through a dedicated team working in a state-of-the-art Production Operations Surveillance Hub (POSH), which enables the monitoring of wells in real time, making production optimization decisions, and ensuring a high level of well integrity via close monitoring of wells and assets.
Nicholson, A. Kirby (Pressure Diagnostics Ltd.) | Bachman, Robert C. (Pressure Diagnostics Ltd.) | Scherz, R. Yvonne (Endeavor Energy Resources) | Hawkes, Robert V. (Cordax Evaluation Technologies Inc.)
Abstract Pressure and stage volume are the least expensive and most readily available data for diagnostic analysis of hydraulic fracturing operations. Case history data from the Midland Basin is used to demonstrate how high-quality, time-synchronized pressure measurements at a treatment and an offsetting shut-in producing well can provide the necessary input to calculate fracture geometries at both wells and estimate perforation cluster efficiency at the treatment well. No special wellbore monitoring equipment is required. In summary, the methods outlined in this paper quantifies fracture geometries as compared to the more general observations of Daneshy (2020) and Haustveit et al. (2020). Pressures collected in Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests (DFITs), select toe-stage full-scale fracture treatments, and offset observation wells are used to demonstrate a simple workflow. The pressure data combined with Volume to First Response (Vfr) at the observation well is used to create a geometry model of fracture length, width, and height estimates at the treatment well as illustrated in Figure 1. The producing fracture length of the observation well is also determined. Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) techniques, a Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture propagation model and offset well Fracture Driven Interaction (FDI) pressures are used to quantify hydraulic fracture dimensions. The PTA-derived Farfield Fracture Extension Pressure, FFEP, concept was introduced in Nicholson et al. (2019) and is summarized in Appendix B of this paper. FFEP replaces Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure, ISIP, for use in net pressure calculations. FFEP is determined and utilized in both DFITs and full-scale fracture inter-stage fall-off data. The use of the Primary Pressure Derivative (PPD) to accurately identify FFEP simplifies and speeds up the analysis, allowing for real time treatment decisions. This new technique is called Rapid-PTA. Additionally, the plotted shape and gradient of the observation-well pressure response can identify whether FDI's are hydraulic or poroelastic before a fracture stage is completed and may be used to change stage volume on the fly. Figure 1: Fracture Geometry Model with FDI Pressure Matching Case studies are presented showing the full workflow required to generate the fracture geometry model. The component inputs for the model are presented including a toe-stage DFIT, inter-stage pressure fall-off, and the FDI pressure build-up. We discuss how to optimize these hydraulic fractures in hindsight (look-back) and what might have been done in real time during the completion operations given this workflow and field-ready advanced data-handling capability. Hydraulic fracturing operations can be optimized in real time using new Rapid-PTA techniques for high quality pressure data collected on treating and observation wells. This process opens the door for more advanced geometry modeling and for rapid design changes to save costs and improve well productivity and ultimate recovery.
Ajisafe, Foluke (Schlumberger) | Reid, Mark (Lime Rock Resources) | Porter, Hank (Lime Rock Resources) | George, Lydia (Former employee of Schlumberger) | Wu, Rhonna (Former employee of Schlumberger) | Yudina, Kira (Former employee of Schlumberger) | Pena, Alejandro (Schlumberger) | Ejofodomi, Efe (Schlumberger) | Artola, Pedro (Schlumberger)
Abstract Increased drilling of infill wells in the Bakken has led to growing concern over the effects of frac or fracture hits between parent and infill wells. Fracture hits can cause decreased production in a parent well, as well as other negative effects such as wellbore sanding, casing damage, and reduced production performance from the infill well. An operator had an objective to maximize production of infill wells and decrease the frequency and severity of frac hits to parent wells. The goal was to maintain production of the parent wells and avoid sanding, which had the potential to cause cleanouts. Infill well completion technologies were successfully implemented on multiwell pads in Mountrail County, Williston basin, to minimize parent-child well interference or negative frac hits on parent wells for optimized production. Four infill (child) wells were landed in the Three Forks formation directly below a group of six parent wells landed in the Middle Bakken. The infill well completion technologies used in this project to mitigate frac hits included far-field diverter, near-wellbore diverter, and real-time pressure monitoring. The far-field diverter design includes a blend of multimodal particles to bridge the fracture tip, preventing excessive fracture length and height growth. The near-wellbore diverter consists of a proprietary blend of degradable particles with a tetra modal size distribution and fibers used to achieve sequential stimulation of perforated clusters to maximize wellbore coverage. Hydraulic fracture modeling with a unique advanced particle transport model was used to predict the impact of the far-field diverter design on fracture geometry. Real-time pressure monitoring allowed acquisition of parent well pressure data to identify pressure communication or lack of communication and implement mitigation and contingency procedures as necessary. Real-time pressure monitoring was also used to optimize and validate the far-field diversion design during the job execution. The parent well monitored was 800 ft away from the closest infill well and at high risk for frac hits due to both the proximity to the infill well and depletion. In the early stages of the infill well stimulation, an increase in pressure up to 600 psi was observed in the parent well. The far-field diverter design was modified to combat the observed frac hit, after which a noticeable drop in both frequency and magnitude of frac hits was observed on the parent well. This is the first time the far-field diverter design optimization process was done in real time. After the infill wells stimulation treatment, production results showed a positive uplift in oil production for all parent wells at an average of 118%. Also, only two out of seven parent wells required a full cleanout, resulting in savings in well cleanup costs. Infill well production data was compared with the closest parent well landed in the same formation (Three Forks). At about a year, the best infill well production was only 10% less than the parent well with similar completion design and the average infill well production approximately 18% less than the parent well. Considering the depletion surrounding the infill wells, production performance exceeded expectations.
The complete paper describes the extensive integrated engineering collaboration and optimization process that allowed an operator to push the drilling and completion envelope to drill a pair of complex, ultra-extended-reach-drilling (ERD) wells in the mature Wandoo field in the Carnarvon Basin offshore Western Australia. The shallow reservoir depth, extreme ERD profile, and high tortuosity requirement for the wells posed significant challenges. These were overcome with extensive planning; integrated engineering designs; application of new technology; good-quality, real-time data interpretation; and strong execution support from both rig site and town. The Wandoo field, in 56 m of water offshore Western Australia, was discovered in 1991 and subsequently developed and placed on production in 1993. The shallow unconsolidated sandstone reservoir consists of a heavily biodegraded oil column overlain by a gas cap and supported by a strong aquifer drive.
One of the first oil fields in the UAE to be fully operated remotely is in the southeast region, 250 km from Abu Dhabi. The complete paper discusses the development and commissioning of the field, which is the first smart field for ADNOC Onshore. The designed and applied technology facilitated unmanned operation of the field from downhole to export. Oilfield digitalization encompasses gathering real-time and non-real-time data from wells, flow lines, manifolds, stations, and water injection facilities; analysis of the data using algorithms, flowcharts, plots, and reports; and user access to this data on user-friendly screens. This allows engineers to focus on interpretation of data vs.
Gas lift is one of the most popular ways to increase oil-well production, and it is no secret that it is an underperformer. Back in 2014, ExxonMobil reported that by creating a team of roving gas-lift experts it was able to add an average of 22% more output on several hundred wells where the gas injection had been optimized. Gains were expected because "wells do not remain the same over time; they change," said Rodney Bane, global artificial-lift manager at ExxonMobil, in this JPT story covering the 2014 SPE Artificial Lift Conference and Exhibition. The problem with gas injection is that change is hard. Injection adjustment or repairs require either pulling the tubing to reach the injection mandrels or a wireline run. Those with good-producing wells, particularly offshore, need to weigh the possible gain against the cost and lost production during the job. Those managing more and more wells live with iffy data, injection systems prone to malfunction, horizontal wells prone to irregular flows, and a time-consuming process for calculating the proper injection rates. New approaches addressing those negatives have led a few big operators to try new systems designed to allow constant adjustments based on downhole data with electric control systems designed to be more reliable.
AlBahrani, Hussain (Texas A&M University (Corresponding author) | Papamichos, Euripides (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Morita, Nobuo (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece and SINTEF Petroleum Research)
Summary The petroleum industry has long relied on predrilling geomechanics models to generate static representations of the allowable mud weight limits. These models rely on simplifying assumptions such as linear elasticity, a uniform wellbore shape, and generalized failure criteria to predict failure and determine a safe mud weight. These assumptions lead to inaccurate results, and they fail to reflect the effect of different routing drilling events. Thus, this paper’s main objective is to improve the process for predicting the wellbore rock failure while drilling. This work overcomes the limitations by using a new and integrated modeling scheme. Wellbore failure prediction is improved through the use of an integrated modeling scheme that involves an elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM) model, machine learning (ML) algorithms, and real-time drilling data, such as image logs from a logging while drilling (LWD) tool that accurately describes the current shape of the wellbore. Available offset well data are modeled in the FEM code and are then used to train the ML algorithms. The produced integrated model of FEM and ML is used to predict failure limits for new wells. This improved failure prediction can be updated with the occurrence of different drilling events such as induced fractures and wellbore enlargements. The values are captured from real-time data and reflected in the integrated model to produce a dynamic representation of the drilling window. The integrated modeling scheme was first applied to laboratory experimental results to provide a proof of concept and validation. This application showed improvement in rock-failure prediction when compared with conventional failure criteria such as Mohr-Coulomb. Also, offset-well data from wireline logging and drilling records are used to train and build a field-based integrated model, which is then used to show that the model output for a separate test well reasonably matches the drilling events from the test well. Application of this integrated model highlights how the allowable mud-weight limits can vary because drilling progresses in a manner that cannot be captured by the conventional predrilling models. As illustrated by a field case, the improvement in failure prediction through this modeling scheme can help avoid nonproductive time events such as wellbore enlargements, hole cleaning issues, pack-offs,stuck-pipe, and lost circulation. This efficiency is to be achieved by a real-time implementation of the model where it responds to drilling events as they occur. Also, this model enables engineers to take advantage of available data that are not routinely used by drilling.
Oilfield services giants Halliburton and Baker Hughes, buoyed by early signs of a North American oilfield recovery, beat Wall Street expectations for first-quarter 2021 earnings. Both firms said they were optimistic about 2021, a far cry from the views from just last year when the pandemic had wrecked global demand and spending cuts and layoffs ruled the day. Halliburton reported earnings of 19 cents per share versus analysts' estimates of 17 cents, IBES data from Refinitiv showed. Baker Hughes' earnings per share of 12 cents topped Wall Street estimates of 11 cents. Halliburton posted net income of $170 million, or $0.19 per diluted share, for the first quarter of 2021.
Abstract Pressure-transient analysis (PTA) is widely used in the industry to estimate fracture half-length, height, and skin due to hydraulic fracturing as well as reservoir parameters. PTA studies focus on pressure data from long shut-in periods and diagnostic fracture injection tests (DFITs), while analyzing the pressure data recorded during the hydraulic fracture treatment has been overlooked. This paper details the state-of-the-art in applying pressure transient analysis to better estimate hydraulic fracture conductivity and dimensions and improve treatment designs stage by stage. The initial portion of this paper describes the application of a novel and low-cost diagnostic method for post-fracture analysis. The bulk of the paper is dedicated to present case histories that illustrate the PTA of the recorded pressure data during treatment to obtain estimates of fracture dimensions and conductivity. The pressure recorded during each stage is processed to ensure the proper data quality and the pressure falloff at the end of the stage is filtered out. The pressure is then analyzed for multi-cluster, finite-conductivity fractures, to obtain the fracture half-length, conductivity, and leakoff. Calculated parameters from each stage are compared to provide insights into the hydraulic fracture design and confirm the adequacy of the treatment design along the well. The results from stage leakoff pressure analysis are very valuable in confirming relative fracture conductivity and providing a qualitative measure of fracture length and height. The total stimulated reservoir area (SRA) calculated using the proposed method yields comparable values to SRA obtained from buildup analysis. The information provided is as valuable and comparable as that from direct near-wellbore diagnostics, such as radioactive traces, temperature logging, real-time micro-seismic monitoring, and production logging. The paper proposes a novel, low-cost analytical PTA method for estimating fracture dimensions, skin, and leakoff coefficient. We illustrate – with several field cases – that conventional post-fracture techniques can be integrated with the stage by stage PTA analysis to provide not only a more consistent and systematic analysis but also a more accurate assessment of treatment effectiveness. The findings of this paper help improve the efficiency of multistage hydraulic fracturing stimulation of horizontal wells.
Soroush, Mohammad (RGL Reservoir Management, University of Alberta) | Mohammadtabar, Mohammad (RGL Reservoir Management, University of Alberta) | Roostaei, Morteza (RGL Reservoir Management) | Hosseini, Seyed Abolhassan (RGL Reservoir Management, University of Alberta) | Mahmoudi, Mahdi (RGL Reservoir Management) | Keough, Daniel (Precise Downhole Services Ltd) | Cheng, Li (University of Alberta) | Moez, Kambiz (University of Alberta) | Fattahpour, Vahidoddin (RGL Reservoir Management)
Abstract Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system using optical fiber has been deployed for downhole monitoring over two-decades. Several technological advancements led to a wide acceptance of this technology as a reliable surveillance technique. This paper presents a comprehensive technical review of all the applications of the DTS, with focus on oil and gas industrial deployments. The paper starts with the advantages of the DTS over other methods and an overview of the DTS basics, including theory, the DTS components, deployment types, fiber types, design and limitations. Then, it is followed by the oil and gas applications of the DTS including hydraulic fracturing (during and after fracturing), well treatment/stimulation (acid injection, fluid distribution, diversion monitoring), inorganic (scaling) and organic (wax/asphaltene/hydrate) deposition detection, leak detection (in well and pipeline), flow monitoring (rate monitoring, water/steam injection and SAGD monitoring, CO2 storage monitoring, zonal contribution determination, gas lift optimization) and reservoir/fluid characterization (facies, porosity, permeability and fluid composition determination). This study reviews the historical development, applications and limitations of the DTS systems. The paper mainly focusses on deployment techniques, the application of the DTS for the prediction and surveillance of the non-thermal and thermal producer/injector wells, hydraulically fractured wells and those wells with treatments. The paper provides a concise review using several field cases from over two hundred published papers of Society of Petroleum Engineering (SPE) and journal databases. The application of the DTS in downhole monitoring can be divided into the qualitative and quantitative applications. In quantitative approaches, numerical models should be combined with the DTS data. This study discusses case by case worldwide field applications of DTS along with proposed modeling methods and interpretations. It also summarizes main challenges, including the fiber reliability, longevity, and operational limitations such as the installation and the complexity of quantitative approaches. This study is the foundation for an ongoing study on wellbore and reservoir surveillance through real-time distributed fiber optic sensing recordings along the wellbore. It summarizes the historical development and limitations to identify the existing gaps and reviews the lessons learned through the two decades of the application of the DTS in production performance.