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Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality. All three can lead to poor decisions regarding which work to undertake, what issues to focus on, and whether to forge ahead or walk away from a project. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders. Examples are provided including corporate, business unit and department case studies. This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets.
Hassi Messaoud is a mature oil field with more than 1,100 production wells. Approximately half of the wells are natural flow and the other half use continuous gas lift (CGL) with concentric (CCE) strings. This paper investigates novel approaches to sour-gas treatment for use in the Middle East that are outside the common oil and gas market and compares them with traditional techniques. In the complete paper, a new, fully coupled implicit tool was used to model an onshore Omani asset with multiple reservoirs, each featuring different fluids and multiple networks. Processing sour natural gas is a challenge.
When panels in an instrument equipment shelter kept tripping and the occasional smell of H2S led to an investigation of the rationale. Although a rare occurrence, this paper presents a strategy for prevention through careful site selection. A wide range of corrosive elements and compounds from a variety of crudes has led to a renewed industry focus on corrosion and the effects it has on pipelines and vessels. Through a range of experiments the authors demonstrate that small amount of H2S can be beneficial in reducing corrosion in 3% Cr steel. Offshore production systems can be impacted negatively by numerous problems attributed to bacterial activity, associated hydrogen sulfide and biogenic iron sulfides, and mercaptan production.
Southwest Research Institute is adding a new facility to its capabilities in testing and evaluating subsea equipment and systems. This review of papers illustrates some of the innovative solutions used in the region. This paper demonstrates a design methodology that combines the API and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code (BPVC) for designing an example subsea pressure containing component for HP/HT conditions greater than 15,000 psi and 250°F.
The pandemic has been an unexpected jolt for the global economy, bringing many industries to a halt. Murphy has taken a step forward into a digital future by designing and implementing a COVID-19 tracking app that is easy to use, quick, and convenient. A coalition of more than 40 organizations is urging the federal government to take steps to protect workers at oil and gas facilities, as well as the communities surrounding the sites, from the coronavirus. The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers and IPIECA, the industry group focused on environmental and social performance, have released their annual assessment of health performance in the industry. The report is based on voluntary reporting from the two groups’ member companies. Shell’s health, safety, and environment team in Argentina, with support from Tenaris, created a new safety protocol during the down period that allowed the company to be the first operator to resume operations in May. Experts say that more than a decade of research has made it clear that current setback distances, in states where they exist, are inadequate to protect public health. Now, political pressure to push oil and gas wells about half a mile from homes and other buildings is peaking across the country.
This paper presents the development of a real-time gas monitoring system with alerts transmitted to the office domain, and the team leads whenever the gases are detected. The system monitors the presence of the hazardous H2S gas. It sends signals to the control room in the manned plants so that operators can take the necessary precautions when stepping into these locations. It also sends alerts to the office domains when the permit to work is being prepared for any facility. It provides a continuous real-time update of the gas present in the location to a cloud-based platform. This is beneficial as it will enable plant operators to take the necessary precautions to both protect themselves and also protect the facilities if the gas discharge spreads across the plant's zone classifications
The objective of this work is to present a successful case study of deploying high power laser cladding in highly sour wells as protection from corrosion. High power laser cladding uses superalloy material and is welded to the pipe, creating a thin and strong film that adheres to the steel pipe. The technology is cost-effective and provides a long-term solution, extending the life of the pipes, casing, tubing, and other parts.
The method requires preconditioning the completion at the surface, applying a thin layer of superalloy (1 mm), and bonding it to the base material with a laser. The process will create a chemical bond between steel and the superalloy, which will result in a resistive layer facing the corrosive fluids. The technology was applied to carbon steel coupons (T-95 grade) and was cladded with three different superalloys Inconel-625, Inconel-825, and Hastelloy C-276. A bare coupon was used as a reference. The coupons were kept for three months downhole and later retrieved for analysis.
The technology was tested in extremely sour wells for three consecutive months. Well-A produces a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (35,000 ppm) while Well-B has a concentration of 14,000 ppm. A detailed analysis, including composition, X-ray fluorescence, environmental scanning electron microscope, and surface profiling on the coupons showed that the cladded samples have excellent resistance and no traces of corrosion on all the cladded coupons.
High power laser cladding is a cost-effective and promising technology that can extend the life of wells and minimize the frequency to replace the tubing due to corrosion issues. The cladded sample exhibits a more durable structure than the substrate materials. The superalloy thin layer protects from corrosion as it is a new pipe.
Dindoruk, Birol (Shell International Exploration and production Inc. & University of Houston) | Ratnakar, Ram R. (Shell International Exploration and production Inc) | Suchismita, Sanyal (Shell India Markets Private Ltd)
We present thermodynamic modeling and pH measurements of fluid systems containing acid-gases (e.g. CO2 and H2S), water and hydrocarbons – replicating the production and shutdown conditions in sour fields – for the purpose of evaluating top-of-line corrosion and wellbore integrity, and screening/selection of the proper wellbore materials. In particular:
An EOS model using Peng-Robinson EOS in combination with Huron-Vidal mixing rule for aqueous sub-system is developed. In the model, subject EOS parameters are calibrated against existing thermodynamic data (saturation data for pure components and solubility data for binary systems) in literature. A new in-situ pH measurement data is presented for a model system corresponding to sour field. It was found that the wellbore can be subjected to pH levels as low as 2.7 with reservoir fluid containing 12 mol% CO2 and 88 mol% methane with downhole flowing conditions of 200 bar and 150°C, and wellhead shut-in conditions of 300 bar and 4°C, as observed from the experiments. A modeling workflow is developed to estimate pH of the condensed water as a function of temperature and composition of the aqueous phase. The comparison between prediction and experimental measurement show very good match between the two (within pH ±0.1).
An EOS model using Peng-Robinson EOS in combination with Huron-Vidal mixing rule for aqueous sub-system is developed. In the model, subject EOS parameters are calibrated against existing thermodynamic data (saturation data for pure components and solubility data for binary systems) in literature.
A new in-situ pH measurement data is presented for a model system corresponding to sour field. It was found that the wellbore can be subjected to pH levels as low as 2.7 with reservoir fluid containing 12 mol% CO2 and 88 mol% methane with downhole flowing conditions of 200 bar and 150°C, and wellhead shut-in conditions of 300 bar and 4°C, as observed from the experiments.
A modeling workflow is developed to estimate pH of the condensed water as a function of temperature and composition of the aqueous phase. The comparison between prediction and experimental measurement show very good match between the two (within pH ±0.1).
Such studies (pH measurements and prediction) are not available in literature but play important role in material screening and assuring wellbore integrity for sour fields. More importantly, sensitivity analysis can be performed to investigate the effects of various factors (such as reservoir temperature/pressure, shutdown conditions, and compositions or extent of souring) on pH prediction. Furthermore, the methodologies developed through this work can also be extended to reservoir facilities, pipelines, sour gas disposal/handling units, as well as, downstream systems such as as water-utilities, reactor plants and refineries. The work can also support for regulation/licensing for these sour systems.
In the last decade, the oil and gas industry has been extended in direction of Digital Oilfield (DOF) approaches (i.e. using smart phone/watch, historians and data management) in many fields such as drilling and health-safety-environment, to improve efficiency and reduce cost. DOF helps in real-time data transfer, monitoring, data cleaning and processing, interpretation, and visualization to make an optimal decision. Moreover, the DOF system has an ability to self-learning via feeding the labeled historical data to update the entire model.
Monitoring, surveillance, diagnostic and modeling management can be made by a person(s) observing the job remotely, rather than locally, with potential for significant cost savings by cooperating various experts to data analysis. Also, real-time system creates continuous well performance monitoring system, thus the system provided a platform for better understanding of the effects of the reservoir behavior which could be reflected on optimizing production operations and enhanced health, safety and environment.
In this project, a controlling system is used to maintain and treat pH of drilling mud, as well as using smart devices to monitor the data at real time. This paper describes a lab-scale flow loop drilling system with real-time monitoring and treatment systems for mud H2S contamination control. The readings of the pH level, electrical conductivity, and pH neutralization chemical valve opening are real-time monitored and control remotely via Internet by using a smart phone to view the streamed data to authorized person as trends for each parameter/sensor.
The results show, the proposed system monitors the streamed data for detectable events and triggers automated notifications to personnel who are ‘following’ the job. In this manner, an operator can be alerted when the H2S is indicated by a significant change in EC accompanied by decreasing pH, an automatic mud treatment control system, and monitored by the smart devices, activates to restore and maintain a targeted pH value.
The presence of H2S in hydrogen sulfide bearing formations introduces significant risks due to its extreme toxicity and its corrosive effects on drilling rig equipment. To ensure protection of drilling operation personnel, a real-time pH/EC monitoring system is developed using a remote and smart control unit that could send alerts and control the treatment process while simulating and monitoring H2S influx on smart phone and smart watch.
This project demonstrates the usage of an edge technology in petroleum industry that meets future aspirations of oil and gas industry, which is represented by the self-learning system that could improve the results and increase its accuracy by using the continuous feed of data to the system database.