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This session will set the stage for what we can tell today between wells and what we want to be able to do in the future. The group will brainstorm at least two circumstances to initially attempt to determine the state of industry and identify topics for closing gaps in what we can know today. The group will frame our understanding in technical and commercial terms to highlight choices to be made, potential shortcomings, and aspects in regards to perfection and steps to potentially get there. The initial brainstorm will be blended topically into the remaining agenda as an initiation point of discussion. The information obtained from many oilfield measurements fall at the ends of a spectrum – as they are either obtained by probing or imaging the near-wellbore region at high vertical resolution or they illuminate large reservoir volumes at poor vertical resolution; and may be more sensitive to rock properties than to fluid behavior in the reservoir.
ABSTRACT: In this work, we have analyzed a series of Poly-axial Test Cell (PTC) experiments (true triaxial conditions) using ABAQUS®’ multi-physics fracture modeling capabilities, utilizing both the Symmetric Cohesive Zone Method and the eXtended Finite Element Method. From a modeling point of view, each such PTC experiment represents a complex boundary value problem, and thus through analysis of such experiments, the influence of various complexities on hydraulic fracture propagation can be examined. We perform numerical experiments where different values of inter-layer stress contrast result in characteristically different fracture geometries. We also investigate the impact of matrix permeability on hydraulic fracture propagation. Towards this end, we simulated the fracture propagation behavior under two different propagation regimes: leak-off dominated and storage-dominated regimes. We also examine the simultaneous growth of multiple fracture within a PTC setting, demonstrating the capability of capturing stress shadowing effects on fracture growth. For all the cases, the simulation results are evaluated against experimental findings.
Fluid-driven (also called hydraulic) fractures are created by means of injection of pressurized fluid into the subsurface . Hydraulic fracturing is primarily employed for stimulation of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. In recent years, hydraulic fracturing in conjunction with multi-lateral drilling technology has transformed the landscape of unconventional reservoir production . The other prominent applications of hydraulic fracturing are Cuttings Re-Injection (CRI), which is used for disposal of cuttings slurry in the subsurface, and Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI), where produced water is injected into a highly permeable formation as means of disposal. Mechanistically speaking, the process of hydraulic fracturing intrinsically involves multiple, coupled physical processes. Accordingly, modeling and simulation of hydraulic fracturing requires a multi-physics capability that not only includes these physics but also models the coupling between them. Here, we discuss ABAQUS®’ multiphysics simulation capability for modeling of hydraulic fracturing which is based on finite element methods.
Hamilton, Matthew (Avalon Holographies Inc.) | Maynard, Aaron (GRI Simulations Inc.) | Jujuly, Muhammad (Memorial Univeristy) | Adeoti, Ibraheem (Memorial Univeristy) | Rahman, Aziz (Memorial Univeristy) | Adey, Matthew (GRI Simulations Inc.)
We present an integration of new capabilities of simulation and visualization for subsea analysis and design into an existing virtual arctic simulation environment (VASE). The existing system (previously presented) provides interactive, high-fidelity simulation capabilities for remotely-operated vehicles (ROV) in arctic environments for subsea trenching along with support for visualization of integrated data from sub-bottom and multibeam sonar imaging devices. This paper describes integration of the existing VASE with computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation capability for simulation of flow assurance and fluid-structure interaction design issues relevant to arctic subsea oil and gas field design.
The presented integrated simulation system allows for rapid, streamlined evaluation of pipeline designs in an integrated data, whole-field context. In particular, detailed analysis of pipeline fatigue risk factors due to slugging and effects of hydrate formation can be performed through integrated CFD analysis capabilities. The system's intuitive pipeline design allows for rapid alteration of pipe and flow lines in response to feedback from bathymetry and soil data, ROV accessibility requirements and structural analysis through flow induced vibration and fluid structure-interaction simulations.
It is demonstrated how various pipeline and jumper designs can be rapidly created in the VASE with design strategies motivated by the integrated whole field data visualization environment. Once pipe and jumper designs are specified, they can be exported for external analysis. We demonstrate this analysis through two fluid-structure interaction models (slugging and hydrate formation model). This allows for effective design in arctic environments, including design of pipeline routes in context of trenching and general management of cold water conditions. Overall, the system can also serve to function as a planning and data management system for subsequent training of pilots for inspection as part of asset integrity management.
Searles, Kevin H. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Zielonka, Matias G. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Ning, Jing (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Garzon, Jorge L. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Kostov, Nikolay M. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Sanz, Pablo F. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Biediger, Erika (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.)
This paper describes the development, validation, and application of new 3D finite element models for a diverse set of oil & gas problems involving fluid-driven fractures. Applications described in the paper include borehole integrity and lost returns, drill cuttings re-injection (CRI), and produced water reinjection (PWRI).
The models were developed and implemented in a commercially available finite element (FE) software package. The models include both cohesive elements (mesh conforms to pre-defined fracture orientation) and extended finite elements (fracture geometry evolves independent of the finite element mesh). Advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be described. The models were validated through comparisons with published analytical asymptotic solutions for limiting values of rock and fluid properties and leak-off conditions (with practical problems of interest lying within these limits). A comprehensive suite of large-scale laboratory experiments were also conducted and models were used to replicate the conditions and results of these experiments. Larger 2D and 3D finite element models were then constructed and used to demonstrate applicability to a broad range of realistic oil & gas problems, including problems with large length and long time scales. Tractable simulation of these problems was enabled by high-performance, massively parallel computing systems.
The models show excellent agreement with published analytical solutions for a broad range of rock and fluid properties and fracturing conditions. The models also show reasonable agreement with laboratory experiments for a similar range of conditions. The models scale up from lab to well scales and have shown practical applicability for a diverse set of challenging oil and gas problems.
Most hydraulic fracture models fall into the categories of fast-running but with simplified physics, or complex physics but computationally impractical for full-scale commercial applications. The models described in this paper have been applied at commercial time and length scales, but also provide for full representation of the complex physics of hydraulic fracturing, as demonstrated by the comprehensive validation with analytical solutions and laboratory experiments.
Francescutto, Alberto (Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy) | Contento, Giorgio (Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy)
In this paper, the possibility of obtaining a simple and efficient description of the roll motion of a ship with liquids with free surface on board is discussed in detail. Available mathematical models with concentrated parameters are implemented and compared with scale model experiments. Critical points are evidenced by using a high-efficiency Parameter Identification Technique. Finally a model with good simulation capability is presented. It is based on a simple roll-sloshing coupling where the effect of the other motions is implicitly accounted for in the estimated parameters. The proposed mathematical model fits well the experimental data requiring the estimation of a reduced set of parameters, most of which can even be roughly assumed in the preliminary stages. The method appears of great interest in the sense of simulation capability of the dynamic effects of liquids on board during ship operations and in the frame of current research on damaged ship behaviour.
Since the early papers of Chadwick and Klotter (1955), Van der Bosch and Vugts (1966), Van der Bosch and Zwaan (1970) and even earlier with the work of Watts (1883, 1885), the attempt to derive an appropriate mathematical model for the solution of the problem of a ship rolling with a partially filled tank on board has been attracting many researchers in the field of naval architecture. This is still a task for today especially as regards the modelling of water inflow/outflow after damage. In aeronautical engineering the problem of the route stability of missiles and aircrafts with a free surface tank was also considered of primary importance (Abramson, 1966). In the work of Van der Bosch et al. (1966) the main idea was to modify the traditional roll motion equation by simply adding the sloshing moment in the RHS of the equation as an additional exciting moment.