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Nanofluid, an emerging heat transfer fluid, is nowadays considered a new field of scientific research that could strengthen the thermal and mechanical properties of the base fluid. Nanosized particles of metal, alloy, and other high conductive material are mixed with engine lubricants to alleviate friction and wear. The purpose of the project is to experimentally assess the feasibility of using Nano-fluid lubricant in IC engine. Nano-sized Copper particles are mixed with the oil engine to enhance the performance of the heat transfer. The present study postulated that adding a nano-additive to the oil is a key factor for enhancing the thermal performance of the internal combustion engine. In particular, the experiments implemented in the study concentrate on the engine oil temperature, the gases exhaust temperature, and the performance of the cooling system. It has been shown that adding nanoparticles at 3 % VOF inside the oil engine, has reduced the temperature up to 26% of engine surface and 16% of the oil engine. The performance of the cooling system, presented by demonstrating the exit temperature of the radiator coolant, has shown to be slightly enhanced due to the augment in the thermal conductivity of the mixture. Heat losses for lubricant to the environment has dropped by 17% while the engine break thermal efficiency enhances by a factor of 1.5.
Ali, Hamza (Schlumberger) | Shah, Abdur Rahman (Schlumberger) | Akram, Agha Hassan (Schlumberger) | Khan, Waqar Ali (Schlumberger) | Siddiqui, Fareed Iqbal (Pakistan Petroleum Limited) | Waheed, Abdul (Pakistan Petroleum Limited) | Ahmed, Faizan (Pakistan Petroleum Limited)
A recent study addressed the modelling challenges of Alpha* gas condensate field. Alpha gas condensate field has a gas in-place of about 1 TCF, and both condensate and black oil production in addition. The field has been producing from two reservoirs SI and DI, for the past 26 years. Alpha field is subdivided into two segments called the Central Area and the Northern Area which are separated by a fault as shown in Figure 2. * Not its real name. One of the most unusual features of Alpha field are the'phase switch wells'.
Hassan, Azaz (OMV Pakistan) | Ahmed, Faizan (OMV Pakistan) | Atiq, Mustafa (OMV Pakistan) | Arif, Fahad (OMV Pakistan) | Rehman, Attique Ur (OMV Pakistan) | Abbasi, Iftikhar (OMV Pakistan) | Bregar, Udo (OMV Pakistan)
Most studies on reservoir characterization and evaluation have concentrated on identification of depositional facies based on the assumption that depositional characteristics and diagenetic features control the petrophysical properties. In sandstone reservoirs, this assumption is usually valid but may be applicable only locally. In this case study, there were discrepancies in the depositional facies at various well locations with their porosity and permeability ranges overlapping each other and therefore hydraulic rock typing approach was adopted in the area of interest.
Facies identification plays a key role in permeability and saturation height modelling, and therefore has the basis in the physics of flow at the pore network scale. This basis is best achieved by seeking functional relationships between core derived pore throat parameters and macroscopic petrophysical attributes such as porosity and permeability when rocks of similar fluid conductivity are identified and grouped together. Each such grouping is referred to as a Hydraulic Flow Unit (HFU).
HFU methodologies were used on the data set such as Winland R35 and Pittman (1992), and discovered that the effective pore system that dominates flow through the pore system of interest corresponds to a pore throat size at which the mercury saturation is 45%. Using Pittman R45 equation, 4 sets of facies were identified on the poro-perm plot. The klinkenberg and net over burden corrections were applied on porosities and permeabilities before performing the analysis.
The appropriateness of facies classification was determined with comparison of permeability and saturation prediction with core permeabilities and log saturations respectively. Saturation height methods such as Leverett J Function, Brooks Corey, Thomeer and Lamda were investigated for the gas wells under study, which had complete data sets including conventional core, SCAL and a comprehensive suite of electric logs.This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of HFU methodology for the field case under study. It also highlights the aptness of facies identification for the subject field using different saturation height methods, discussing their pros/cons in course.
In conventional drilling scenario, the Drilling Manager has to deal with similar drilling problems several times during field development phase. In addition to this he has to manage several service providers which results in increased workload. This increased workload prevents him to focus on the solutions of drilling problem & drilling optimization.
Integrated Drilling Services is a new concept in which all services and equipments are integrated under one contract. It is a contractual model which is technically and economically feasible with efficient risk management. This model reduces non productive time and non conformances with efficient project management and Technology Advancements in order to encourage Drilling Managers "Doing Right Things?? rather than "Doing Things Right??.
This paper describes an engineering approach towards well optimization and efficient project management. Moreover, economic benefits are also the part of the study.